Lustig E, Shubrook JH, Pfotenhauer KM. Time-Restricted Feeding and Potential for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2020;120(9):560–567. doi: https://doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2020.101.
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Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular strategy for weight loss and improved metabolic health. IF regimes involve deliberate implementation of fasting windows ranging from 12 to 72 hours. During these fasting windows, individuals reduce their caloric intake by 75% to 100%. Such strategies show promise and are increasingly socially popular, but many effects are not completely understood. Specifically, the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF), a specific form of IF in which participants undergo daily fasting periods lasting about 16 hours, is among the most popular yet under-studied regimens. This review finds that TRF may produce mild weight loss and improved function of insulin. TRF also likely produces cardiovascular effects, such as decreased blood pressure and fasting blood triglycerides. TRF, like other forms of IF, may encourage fat loss specifically when combined with exercise. The manuscripts identified in this narrative literature review were analyzed for the potential benefit for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and limitations of summarized content were noted. While these studies support some suspected benefits of TRF, they also legitimize the need for future TRF studies, since conclusions are greatly limited by a paucity of evidence.
a Intermittent fasting strategies all allow consumption of water while fasting and typically black coffee and unsweetened tea.
b Fasting days in alternate-day studies ranged from 0% to 25% of normal calorie intake.
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