Wu SS, Graven K, Sergi M, Hostoffer R. Rhinitis: The Osteopathic Modular Approach. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2020;120(5):351–358. doi: https://doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2020.054.
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Historically, osteopathic principles have focused on the appropriate drainage of cranial structures to relieve symptoms of rhinitis, which include nasal congestion, anterior/posterior rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching. Allergic rhinitis is primarily an aberrant immunologic reaction caused by cytokines secreted from lymphocytes that traverse the lymphatic pathway throughout the body. Several studies have documented that, when manipulated, the lymphatic system enhanced the motion of these lymphocytes to important immune structures in both human and animal models. Additionally, modulation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow has been found either to inhibit or enhance secretion and/or drainage of important allergic sites. Osteopathic approaches to rhinitis play an effective role in the comprehensive management of rhinitis, and techniques based on these approaches are therapeutic options for rhinitis. This article provides an up-to-date literature review about the management of rhinitis using the 5 models of osteopathic medicine: biomechanical, respiratory-circulatory, metabolic, neurologic, and behavioral.
Abbreviations: ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; Ig, immunoglobulin; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
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