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Original Contribution  |   December 2018
Industry Payments in Cardiology: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Open Payments Data
Author Notes
  • From Oklahoma State University Medical Center (Dr Jaiswal) and Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences (Mr Checketts and Dr Vassar) in Tulsa. 
  • Financial Disclosures: None reported. 
  • Support: None reported. 
  •  *Address correspondence to Jake X. Checketts, BS, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 1111 W 17th St, Tulsa, OK 74107-1886. Email: jake.checketts@okstate.edu
     
Article Information
Cardiovascular Disorders
Original Contribution   |   December 2018
Industry Payments in Cardiology: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Open Payments Data
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, December 2018, Vol. 118, 781-787. doi:https://doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2018.170
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, December 2018, Vol. 118, 781-787. doi:https://doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2018.170
Abstract

Background: The goal of Open Payments and the Physician Payments Sunshine Act is to foster transparency and accountability to help stakeholders better understand financial ties between physicians and teaching hospitals and the pharmaceutical and medical device industries.

Objective: To evaluate the nature of industry relationships among cardiologists using the Open Payments database.

Methods: The authors used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Open Payments data for calendar year 2015 to evaluate the financial relationship between cardiologists and medical industries (manufacturers of medications, devices, biologics, and medical supplies). The database used in this specific investigation included general payments reported for 2015. Payments were broken down by totals, type, company, and range.

Results: In the 2015 calendar year, 81,977 payments were made to 12,078 cardiologists, amounting to $13,906,167.43. The minimum payment made to a cardiologist was $1.16 and the maximum, $2,805,825. The most frequent category was $11 to $50, with 53,722 payments made (65.5%), followed by less than $10, with 12,307 payments made (15.0%).

Conclusion: Payments to cardiologists were highly variable. Additional studies regarding the effects of these payments may be warranted.

The relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical and medical device industries is complex. On one hand, these relationships have led to the creation of novel therapies, but on the other, they have contributed to bias and possibly compromised patient care. With regard to the latter, studies have indicated that physicians are more likely to prescribe brand name medications promoted by pharmaceutical representatives.1 Furthermore, clinical practice guideline recommendations may be compromised in favor of particular drugs if guideline developers accepted industry payments. Lerner et al2 found that physicians who received payments from a pharmaceutical company were more likely to judge proindustry clinical trial results as favorable. For these reasons, such relationships with industry could bear more careful monitoring and increased transparency. To address concerns about these financial ties, the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (PPSA) was created with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010.3 In 2013, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) developed Open Payments. 
The goal of Open Payments and the PPSA is to foster transparency and accountability to help stakeholders better understand financial ties between physicians and teaching hospitals and the pharmaceutical and medical device industries.4 These records, documented by industry representatives, are publicly available and are released annually. Data collection began on August 1, 2013, and required all applicable manufacturers of medications, devices, biologics, and medical supplies covered by Medicaid, Medicare, or the Children's Health Insurance Program to report any payment or transfers of value directed to physicians.3 Financial ties between physicians and the health care industry do not necessarily indicate an improper relationship, according to the CMS, but they offer insight into the nature of affiliations that exist between physicians and hospitals and pharmaceutical and medical device industries.4 
Applicable manufacturers and applicable group purchasing organizations (GPOs) are required to submit data on payments and other transfers of value made to either physicians or teaching hospitals between January 1 and December 31 of each year.5 They are defined as a group “that purchases, arranges for, or negotiates the purchase of a covered drug, device, biological, or medical supply.”6 Therefore, these GPOs are also required to indicate whether ownership or investments directly involve physicians or their families during these respective years. The documented data are then made available to physicians and teaching hospitals for 45 days to resolve any disputes.7 Immediately after the resolution period, final revisions or corrections must be made during a 15-day period to resolve any disputes. After all data are finalized, documentation is reviewed and then published on the CMS website, where it becomes available to consumers and physicians to view online or download. 
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the extent of financial relationships between cardiologists and medical industries (manufacturers of medications, medical devices, and medical supplies) for the 2015 calendar year. 
Methods
Open Payments data for the calendar year of 2015 were obtained from https://www.cms.gov/openpayments. The database used in this investigation included general payments reported for the 2015 program year. General payments are defined by the CMS as gas reimbursement or other transfers of value made to a recipient (physician or teaching hospital) that were not connected with a research agreement or research protocol.5 Data sets with research payments and physician ownership and investment interest were excluded. Thus, this study's data set included all payments from GPOs to physicians or teaching hospitals. The data set did not include nonphysicians, and, as such, nonphysician professionals receiving payments were not included. After obtaining the data set, we excluded any physicians who were not specifically denoted as cardiologists, which also omitted payments made to cardiac electrophysiologists and interventional cardiologists defined by the CMS's health care provider taxonomy.8 Using the unique number of cardiologist IDs per CMS data set, we then computed the number of cardiologists documented in 2015. Statistics on these specific physicians were then performed, and they were further categorized. 
We next determined what types of payments were received by cardiologists and ranked the nature of payments received and their respective percentiles. We also determined which cardiovascular industries were most prominent in the data set. We calculated how many cardiologists participated in relationships with industry vs how many practiced per Association of American Medical Colleges, the payments made with their percentiles by geographic location, the total number of payments made and their dollar amount, the payment amount per category, and the medical industries incorporated. We then ranked cardiovascular manufacturers by total dollar amount while analyzing which type of payment was most prevalent. STATA 14 and Microsoft Excel 2016 were used for further data extrapolation and for more detailed analysis. 
Results
With respect to all Open Payments data available for 2015, a total of 618,000 physicians in all specialties received a total payment amount of $7.52 billion, with 11.9 million payments made.6 In the 2015 calendar year, a total of 81,977 payments were made to 12,078 cardiologists, amounting to $13,906,167.43 and representing 0.2% of all payments accounted for that year. The minimum payment made to a cardiologist was $1.16, and the maximum payment was $2,805,825. The median amount received by a cardiologist in 2015 was $258.92. The payment categories included 12 distinct groups: charitable contribution; compensation for services other than consulting, including serving as faculty or as a speaker at a venue other than a continuing education program; compensation for serving as faculty or as a speaker for a nonaccredited and noncertified continuing education program; consulting fee; education; entertainment; food and beverage; gift; grant; honoraria; royalty or license; and travel and lodging. The category with the highest value was compensation for services other than consulting, including serving as faculty or as a speaker at a venue other than a continuing education program ($8,105,139.92). The second highest value category was consulting fees ($2,134,400.97), followed closely by food and beverage ($1,956,174.97). The category with the lowest value was gifts ($280.00). The distribution of all categories is presented in Table 1. 
Table 1.
Total 2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Category as Reported in Open Payments
Nature of Payment No. (%) USD
Compensation for services other than consulting, including serving as faculty or as a speaker at a venue other than a continuing education program 8,105,139.92 (58.3)
Consulting fee 2,134,400.97 (15.3)
Food and beverage 1,956,174.97 (14.1)
Travel and lodging 1,420,068.12 (10.2)
Education 154,146.61 (1.11)
Grant 80,063.09 (0.58)
Royalty or license 26,376.37 (0.19)
Honoraria 17,554.74 (0.13)
Compensation for serving as faculty or as a speaker for a nonaccredited and noncertified continuing education program 9500.00 (0.07)
Entertainment 1,482.64 (0.01)
Charitable contribution 1,000.00 (0.01)
Gift 280.00 (<0.01)
Total 13,906,167.43 (100)
Table 1.
Total 2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Category as Reported in Open Payments
Nature of Payment No. (%) USD
Compensation for services other than consulting, including serving as faculty or as a speaker at a venue other than a continuing education program 8,105,139.92 (58.3)
Consulting fee 2,134,400.97 (15.3)
Food and beverage 1,956,174.97 (14.1)
Travel and lodging 1,420,068.12 (10.2)
Education 154,146.61 (1.11)
Grant 80,063.09 (0.58)
Royalty or license 26,376.37 (0.19)
Honoraria 17,554.74 (0.13)
Compensation for serving as faculty or as a speaker for a nonaccredited and noncertified continuing education program 9500.00 (0.07)
Entertainment 1,482.64 (0.01)
Charitable contribution 1,000.00 (0.01)
Gift 280.00 (<0.01)
Total 13,906,167.43 (100)
×
A total of 45 GPOs submitted payments to a cardiologist. AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, LLC, was the submitting GPO with the highest overall payment submissions, which were valued at $7,211,860 and accounted for 51.85% of total payments to cardiologists. Biosense Webster, Inc, was the second highest, accounting for $3,486,735 (25.07%), followed by St. Jude Medical, Inc, with $884,122 (6.36%), ZOLL Services LLC with $836,769 (6.02%), and Thoratec Corporation with $709,814 (5.10%) (Figure). These top 5 medical corporations accounted for $13,129,300 (94.41%) of all payments to cardiologists. The top 25 companies’ total payments are presented in Table 2.The next step incorporated the range of payments in monetary value with their frequency to physicians, assessed in categories of less than $10; $11 to $50; $51 to $100; $101 to $500; $501 to $1000; $1001 to $5000; $5001 to $10,000; $10,001 to $15,000; $15,001 to $20,000; $20,001 to $25,000; and more than $25,000. The most frequent category was $11 to $50, with 53,722 payments (65.53%), followed by less than $10 with 12,307 (15.01%) payments made. More than 80% of all payments made were valued at less than $10. A decreasing trend in the amount of payments by medical industries was seen when payments above $5000 were made (Table 3). 
Figure.
Payment distribution for the top 5 companies making payments to cardiologists.
Figure.
Payment distribution for the top 5 companies making payments to cardiologists.
Table 2.
2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Company as Reported in Open Payments
Submitting GPO Total USD Payment (%) No. of Payments Median USD Payment
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP 7,211,860 (51.9) 47,401 17
Biosense Webster, Inc 3,486,735 (25.1) 2288 45
St. Jude Medical, Inc 884,122 (6.36) 4959 44
ZOLL Services LLC (A/K/A ZOLL LifeCor Corp) 836,769 (6.02) 20,281 13
Thoratec Corporation 709,814 (5.10) 4694 35
Janssen Research & Development, LLC 220,852 (1.59) 98 104
CVRx, Inc 115,877 (0.83) 111 244
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc 96,101 (0.69) 295 26
Novartis Pharma AG 79,587 (0.57) 79 179
GE Healthcare 74,184 (0.53) 582 18
FUKUDA DENSHI Co, Ltd 69,500 (0.50) 5 1500
diaDexus, Inc 21,660 (0.16) 94 65
HeartFlow, Inc 17,691 (0.13) 65 126
Purdue Pharma L.P. 14,975 (0.11) 158 15
Medicomp Inc 13,186 (0.09) 283 19
CorMatrix Cardiovascular Inc 12,801 (0.09) 276 15
ResMed Corp 10,808 (0.08) 63 47
ZOLL Medical Corporation 8301 (0.06) 15 51
Instrumentation Laboratory Company 7115 (0.05) 5 199
Ethicon Inc 6759 (0.05) 32 21
Johnson and Johnson International 1114 (0.01) 39 22
AKRIMAX PHARMACEUTICALS, LLC 965 (0.01) 26 12
Mist Pharmaceuticals, LLC 773 (0.01) 17 26
Mentor Worldwide LLC 763 (0.01) 15 31
Osprey Medical Inc 659 (<0.01) 9 19
Table 2.
2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Company as Reported in Open Payments
Submitting GPO Total USD Payment (%) No. of Payments Median USD Payment
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP 7,211,860 (51.9) 47,401 17
Biosense Webster, Inc 3,486,735 (25.1) 2288 45
St. Jude Medical, Inc 884,122 (6.36) 4959 44
ZOLL Services LLC (A/K/A ZOLL LifeCor Corp) 836,769 (6.02) 20,281 13
Thoratec Corporation 709,814 (5.10) 4694 35
Janssen Research & Development, LLC 220,852 (1.59) 98 104
CVRx, Inc 115,877 (0.83) 111 244
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc 96,101 (0.69) 295 26
Novartis Pharma AG 79,587 (0.57) 79 179
GE Healthcare 74,184 (0.53) 582 18
FUKUDA DENSHI Co, Ltd 69,500 (0.50) 5 1500
diaDexus, Inc 21,660 (0.16) 94 65
HeartFlow, Inc 17,691 (0.13) 65 126
Purdue Pharma L.P. 14,975 (0.11) 158 15
Medicomp Inc 13,186 (0.09) 283 19
CorMatrix Cardiovascular Inc 12,801 (0.09) 276 15
ResMed Corp 10,808 (0.08) 63 47
ZOLL Medical Corporation 8301 (0.06) 15 51
Instrumentation Laboratory Company 7115 (0.05) 5 199
Ethicon Inc 6759 (0.05) 32 21
Johnson and Johnson International 1114 (0.01) 39 22
AKRIMAX PHARMACEUTICALS, LLC 965 (0.01) 26 12
Mist Pharmaceuticals, LLC 773 (0.01) 17 26
Mentor Worldwide LLC 763 (0.01) 15 31
Osprey Medical Inc 659 (<0.01) 9 19
×
Table 3.
Range of 2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Frequency and Percentage as Reported in Open Payments
USD Frequency (%)
<$10 12,307 (15.0)
$11-$50 53,722 (65.5)
$51-$100 5,597 (6.83)
$101-$500 6,873 (8.38)
$501-$1000 685 (0.84)
$1001-$5000 2,621 (3.20)
$5001-$10,000 132 (0.16)
$10,001-$15,000 24 (0.03)
$15,001-$20,000 7 (0.01)
$20,001-$25,000 1 (<0.01)
>$25,000 8 (0.01)
Frequency Total 81,977 (100)
Table 3.
Range of 2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Frequency and Percentage as Reported in Open Payments
USD Frequency (%)
<$10 12,307 (15.0)
$11-$50 53,722 (65.5)
$51-$100 5,597 (6.83)
$101-$500 6,873 (8.38)
$501-$1000 685 (0.84)
$1001-$5000 2,621 (3.20)
$5001-$10,000 132 (0.16)
$10,001-$15,000 24 (0.03)
$15,001-$20,000 7 (0.01)
$20,001-$25,000 1 (<0.01)
>$25,000 8 (0.01)
Frequency Total 81,977 (100)
×
Discussion
With the introduction of the PPSA, Open Payments data were first collected in August 2013. The main objective was to foster greater transparency of financial relationships between providers (physicians, hospitals) and medical industries; this transparency has been increasing each year since the first data set was released on September 30, 2014.9 In 2013, 4.09 billion dollars in 4.50 million payments was documented. In 2014, 7.86 billion dollars in 12.02 million payments was documented. The highest amount to date was reached in 2015, with 8.09 billion dollars in 12.3 million payments documented.9 The upward trend found within Open Payments has allowed for more clarity regarding the direction of the relationships between providers and medical industries. This clarity is reinforced by the data sets being available online and searchable by all consumers and health care providers without any restrictions or limitations. 
Total payments to cardiologists amounted to $13,906,167.43, with physicians of all specialties receiving $7.52 billion. Payments to the cardiac specialists was 0.18% of all payments made during 2015, which accounted for a miniscule amount in comparison with total payments made by medical industries to all physicians. According to AAMC data and reports,10 there were 22,058 active cardiologists practicing in 2015. Open Payments data show that 12,078 cardiologists received any payment in 2015, indicating that 54.76% of these specialists were involved with medical industries. 
Although payments received by cardiologists are a fraction of the overall payments reported within the Open Payments database, the effects these payments may have should not be discounted. DeJong et al1 reported that even miniscule payments can directly affect physician prescribing and preferences, and these potentially unreported industry relationships could influence cardiologists’ decision-making. Furthermore, Andreatos et al11 reported that cardiovascular clinical practice guidelines had the highest percentage (62.5%) of physicians receiving more than $5000 from a single company among all medical specialties. In addition, the authors11 found that of physicians receiving greater than $5000 from a single company, only 7.0% correctly disclosed these payments within their guideline disclosure statement. This finding indicates that industry influence may bias (whether consciously or subconsciously) the prescribing practices of cardiologists, as well as the conclusions made within cardiovascular clinical practice guidelines. These findings also support the Open Payments' usefulness in evaluating industry relationships and the need for transparent reporting of industry relationships 
The CMS provides whole data sets on their website, which can be easily searched and examined. Although the data availability lends insight to financial ties, the current method of documenting some payments has limitations. Small payments defined by the law as less than $10 do not need to be reported unless the total annual value of payments provided to a physician or teaching hospital exceeds $100.4 This stipulation may indicate that not all relationships are being disclosed, although one can argue that the number of undisclosed relationships is small because the payment received by the average cardiologist is $258.92. Another limitation to this data reporting is that discounts, including rebates, do not need to be reported to the CMS. 
Although data reporting has been increasing, inconsistencies remain in Open Payments. The first release of CMS data contained $2.2 billion that went unverified by the associated physicians, owing to inaccuracies in their reporting systems. The data in Open Payments may have also undergone an unsatisfactory degree of prerelease vetting, as 4.8% of physicians and 29.8% of teaching hospitals underwent a complex vetting process.12 Between 2015 and 2017, more than 98% of the total payments were validated with physician approval.13 This upward trend verifies the positive response to Open Payments and confirms that providers with financial ties to industry are confirming these ties. 
Because the data in the Open Payments database may place the reputation of physicians at stake, a more detailed explanation of the payments in the database may be warranted. Patients or others may misinterpret the data because of the small character field given for explanation of the payment. Furthermore, less than 10% of payments have a corresponding contextual commentary, leaving more than 90% of the disclosed payments up to open interpretation by the viewer.12 
Physicians should be aware of and familiar with the Open Payments system, and they should continue to compare their own documentation with what is posted in the system to ensure accuracy. Of the 81,977 payments available in the data set, 9 had a dispute status. This relatively minute dispute status either indicates that many physicians approve of the accuracy of the readily available data or suggests that physicians are not closely monitoring the payments associated with them. A more clear method is needed for further clarification. 
A statement from the American Medical Association14 released in June 2016 reported that physicians have a difficult time participating in the review and validation process of submitted data. They stated that the CMS website is “confusing, time consuming, and overly burdensome.”14 The organization also reported that physicians could be viewed in a negative light by patients if erroneous data are published. 
Currently, government officials are debating a possible repeal of the ACA. Repeal would threaten the Open Payments system3 because it is funded directly through the ACA. Consequently, the future of this system remains uncertain despite progress through increasing documentation during the past 3 years. 
Conclusion
Of the 22,058 practicing cardiologists, 12,078 received some type of payment from medical industries in 2015. Of the $7.52 billion documented in Open Payments for 2015, less than 1% of the total was linked directly to these physicians. Thus, cardiologists received a small proportion of total payments from medical industries to all physicians in 2015. Nevertheless, all physicians should be aware of their data in Open Payments and should regularly monitor their financial relationships with medical industries. Overall, more user input and data collection from Open Payments are needed for further clarification of financial relationships between providers and medical industries. 
Author Contributions
All authors provided substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; all authors drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content; all authors gave final approval of the version of the article to be published; and all authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. 
References
DeJong C, Aguilar T, Tseng CW, Lin GA, Boscardin WJ, Dudley RA. Pharmaceutical industry-sponsored meals and physician prescribing patterns for Medicare beneficiaries. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(8):1114-1110. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2765 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lerner TG, Mda C Miranda, Lera AT, et al The prevalence and influence of self-reported conflicts of interest by editorial authors of phase III cancer trials. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012;33(5):1019-1022. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2012.05.011 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rules and regulations. Fed Regist. 42 CFR Parts 402 and 403. 2013;78(27):9457-9528. https://www.cms.gov/OpenPayments/Downloads/Affordable-Care-Act-Section-6002-Final-Rule.pdf. Accessed January 11, 2017.
Open payments data in context. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. https://www.cms.gov/OpenPayments/About/Open-Payments-Data-in-Context.html. Accessed July 15, 2017.
Natures of payments. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. https://www.cms.gov/OpenPayments/About/Natures-of-Payment.html. Accessed January 14, 2017.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 42 USC, §6002 (2010).
Dispute and correction for applicable manufacturers and GPOs. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. https://www.cms.gov/OpenPayments/Program-Participants/Applicable-Manufacturers-and-GPOs/Dispute-and-Correction.html. Accessed July 15, 2017.
Open payments taxonomy. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Provider-Enrollment-and-Certification/MedicareProviderSupEnroll/Taxonomy.html. Accessed July 15, 2017.
Summary of open payments data. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. https://openpaymentsdata.cms.gov/summary. Accessed July 15, 2017.
Active physicians in the largest specialties, 2015. Association of American Medical Colleges website. https://www.aamc.org/data/workforce/reports/458480/1-1-chart.html. Accessed July 12, 2017.
Andreatos N, Zacharioudakis IM, Zervou FN, Muhammed M, Mylonakis E. Discrepancy between financial disclosures of authors of clinical practice guidelines and reports by industry. Medicine. 2017;96(2):e5711. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000005711 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Santhakumar S, Adashi EY. The Physician Payment Sunshine Act: testing the value of transparency. JAMA. 2015;313(1):23-24. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.15472 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sullivan T. CMS provides an “Update on Open Payments Reporting” at CBI Transparency and Aggregate Spend Conference. Policy & Medicine. May 5, 2018. http://www.policymed.com/2015/08/cms-provides-an-update-on-open-payments-reporting-at-cbi-transparency-and-aggregate-spend-conference.html. Accessed July 15, 2017.
AMA statement on newly released open payments data. American Medical Association website. https://www.ama-assn.org/ama-statement-newly-released-open-payments-data. Accessed July 15, 2017.
Figure.
Payment distribution for the top 5 companies making payments to cardiologists.
Figure.
Payment distribution for the top 5 companies making payments to cardiologists.
Table 1.
Total 2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Category as Reported in Open Payments
Nature of Payment No. (%) USD
Compensation for services other than consulting, including serving as faculty or as a speaker at a venue other than a continuing education program 8,105,139.92 (58.3)
Consulting fee 2,134,400.97 (15.3)
Food and beverage 1,956,174.97 (14.1)
Travel and lodging 1,420,068.12 (10.2)
Education 154,146.61 (1.11)
Grant 80,063.09 (0.58)
Royalty or license 26,376.37 (0.19)
Honoraria 17,554.74 (0.13)
Compensation for serving as faculty or as a speaker for a nonaccredited and noncertified continuing education program 9500.00 (0.07)
Entertainment 1,482.64 (0.01)
Charitable contribution 1,000.00 (0.01)
Gift 280.00 (<0.01)
Total 13,906,167.43 (100)
Table 1.
Total 2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Category as Reported in Open Payments
Nature of Payment No. (%) USD
Compensation for services other than consulting, including serving as faculty or as a speaker at a venue other than a continuing education program 8,105,139.92 (58.3)
Consulting fee 2,134,400.97 (15.3)
Food and beverage 1,956,174.97 (14.1)
Travel and lodging 1,420,068.12 (10.2)
Education 154,146.61 (1.11)
Grant 80,063.09 (0.58)
Royalty or license 26,376.37 (0.19)
Honoraria 17,554.74 (0.13)
Compensation for serving as faculty or as a speaker for a nonaccredited and noncertified continuing education program 9500.00 (0.07)
Entertainment 1,482.64 (0.01)
Charitable contribution 1,000.00 (0.01)
Gift 280.00 (<0.01)
Total 13,906,167.43 (100)
×
Table 2.
2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Company as Reported in Open Payments
Submitting GPO Total USD Payment (%) No. of Payments Median USD Payment
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP 7,211,860 (51.9) 47,401 17
Biosense Webster, Inc 3,486,735 (25.1) 2288 45
St. Jude Medical, Inc 884,122 (6.36) 4959 44
ZOLL Services LLC (A/K/A ZOLL LifeCor Corp) 836,769 (6.02) 20,281 13
Thoratec Corporation 709,814 (5.10) 4694 35
Janssen Research & Development, LLC 220,852 (1.59) 98 104
CVRx, Inc 115,877 (0.83) 111 244
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc 96,101 (0.69) 295 26
Novartis Pharma AG 79,587 (0.57) 79 179
GE Healthcare 74,184 (0.53) 582 18
FUKUDA DENSHI Co, Ltd 69,500 (0.50) 5 1500
diaDexus, Inc 21,660 (0.16) 94 65
HeartFlow, Inc 17,691 (0.13) 65 126
Purdue Pharma L.P. 14,975 (0.11) 158 15
Medicomp Inc 13,186 (0.09) 283 19
CorMatrix Cardiovascular Inc 12,801 (0.09) 276 15
ResMed Corp 10,808 (0.08) 63 47
ZOLL Medical Corporation 8301 (0.06) 15 51
Instrumentation Laboratory Company 7115 (0.05) 5 199
Ethicon Inc 6759 (0.05) 32 21
Johnson and Johnson International 1114 (0.01) 39 22
AKRIMAX PHARMACEUTICALS, LLC 965 (0.01) 26 12
Mist Pharmaceuticals, LLC 773 (0.01) 17 26
Mentor Worldwide LLC 763 (0.01) 15 31
Osprey Medical Inc 659 (<0.01) 9 19
Table 2.
2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Company as Reported in Open Payments
Submitting GPO Total USD Payment (%) No. of Payments Median USD Payment
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP 7,211,860 (51.9) 47,401 17
Biosense Webster, Inc 3,486,735 (25.1) 2288 45
St. Jude Medical, Inc 884,122 (6.36) 4959 44
ZOLL Services LLC (A/K/A ZOLL LifeCor Corp) 836,769 (6.02) 20,281 13
Thoratec Corporation 709,814 (5.10) 4694 35
Janssen Research & Development, LLC 220,852 (1.59) 98 104
CVRx, Inc 115,877 (0.83) 111 244
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc 96,101 (0.69) 295 26
Novartis Pharma AG 79,587 (0.57) 79 179
GE Healthcare 74,184 (0.53) 582 18
FUKUDA DENSHI Co, Ltd 69,500 (0.50) 5 1500
diaDexus, Inc 21,660 (0.16) 94 65
HeartFlow, Inc 17,691 (0.13) 65 126
Purdue Pharma L.P. 14,975 (0.11) 158 15
Medicomp Inc 13,186 (0.09) 283 19
CorMatrix Cardiovascular Inc 12,801 (0.09) 276 15
ResMed Corp 10,808 (0.08) 63 47
ZOLL Medical Corporation 8301 (0.06) 15 51
Instrumentation Laboratory Company 7115 (0.05) 5 199
Ethicon Inc 6759 (0.05) 32 21
Johnson and Johnson International 1114 (0.01) 39 22
AKRIMAX PHARMACEUTICALS, LLC 965 (0.01) 26 12
Mist Pharmaceuticals, LLC 773 (0.01) 17 26
Mentor Worldwide LLC 763 (0.01) 15 31
Osprey Medical Inc 659 (<0.01) 9 19
×
Table 3.
Range of 2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Frequency and Percentage as Reported in Open Payments
USD Frequency (%)
<$10 12,307 (15.0)
$11-$50 53,722 (65.5)
$51-$100 5,597 (6.83)
$101-$500 6,873 (8.38)
$501-$1000 685 (0.84)
$1001-$5000 2,621 (3.20)
$5001-$10,000 132 (0.16)
$10,001-$15,000 24 (0.03)
$15,001-$20,000 7 (0.01)
$20,001-$25,000 1 (<0.01)
>$25,000 8 (0.01)
Frequency Total 81,977 (100)
Table 3.
Range of 2015 Medical Industry Payments Received by Cardiologists by Frequency and Percentage as Reported in Open Payments
USD Frequency (%)
<$10 12,307 (15.0)
$11-$50 53,722 (65.5)
$51-$100 5,597 (6.83)
$101-$500 6,873 (8.38)
$501-$1000 685 (0.84)
$1001-$5000 2,621 (3.20)
$5001-$10,000 132 (0.16)
$10,001-$15,000 24 (0.03)
$15,001-$20,000 7 (0.01)
$20,001-$25,000 1 (<0.01)
>$25,000 8 (0.01)
Frequency Total 81,977 (100)
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