Shubrook JH, Chen W, Lim A. Evidence for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2018;118(11):730–737. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2018.158.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common chronic metabolic condition. Before receiving this diagnosis, persons typically have a long period of prediabetes. There is good evidence that T2DM can often be prevented or delayed by means of lifestyle interventions (39%-71%), medications (28%-79%), or metabolic surgery (75%). However, despite consistent data demonstrating their efficacy, these tools are underused, and knowledge about them among primary care physicians is limited. In an effort to engage physicians in addressing this public health crisis more effectively, the authors reviewed the evidence that T2DM can be prevented or delayed in persons at risk.
Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; DPP, Diabetes Prevention Program; DPS, Diabetes Prevention Study; NNT, number needed to treat; RRR, relative risk reduction.
a B, animal reproduction studies show no risk to fetus, and there are no well-controlled studies in pregnant women OR animal studies have shown a risk, but well-controlled studies in pregnant women show no risk to the fetus; C, risk has not been ruled out; D, positive evidence of risk, but potential benefits may warrant use of drug in pregnant women; X, contraindicated in pregnancy.
Abbreviations: GI, gastrointestinal; HF, heart failure; HLD, hyperlipidemia; LFT, liver function test; NNT, number needed to treat; RRR, relative risk reduction; URTI, upper respiratory tract infection.
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