Sharma M, Stephens PM, Nahar VK, Catalano HP, Lingam VC, Ford MA. Using a Multitheory Model to Predict Initiation and Sustenance of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among College Students. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2018;118(8):507–517. doi: https://doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2018.119.
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Consuming a diet rich in fruits and vegetables offers numerous health benefits. However, many college students do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables daily.
To predict change in fruit and vegetable consumption behavior among college students who were not eating the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables using the multitheory model (MTM) of behavior change.
In this cross-sectional study, a 38-item face-, content-, and construct-valid survey was sent to college students at a large university in the southeastern United States. Students were included in the analysis if they were aged at least 18 years and ate less than 5 cups of fruits and vegetables per day. The survey was broken into sections based on the MTM constructs of initiation of behavior change (participatory dialogue, behavioral confidence, and changes in physical environment) and sustenance of behavior change (emotional transformation, practice for change, and changes in social environment). Stepwise multiple regression was conducted to predict behavior change regarding fruit and vegetable consumption.
Of the 5000 potential respondents, 175 completed the survey and were included in the analysis. Behavioral confidence and changes in physical environment were statistically significant predictors of the intention to initiate fruit and vegetable consumption (F2,173=59.700; P<.001) and accounted for 40.2% of the variance. Emotional transformation, practice for change, and changes in social environment were statistically significant predictors for the intention to sustain fruit and vegetable consumption (F3,171=26.374; P<.001) and accounted for 30.4% of the variance.
Survey results showed that the MTM is a useful framework for designing behavior change interventions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among college students.
a Possible range and observed range.
a Dependent variable is initiation of fruits and vegetables consumption behavior change; Independent variables are participatory dialogue, behavioral confidence, and changes in physical environment.
b F1,174=102.7; P<.001; R2=0.37; adjusted R2=0.37.
c F2,173=59.7; P<.001; R2=0.41; adjusted R2=0.40.
a Dependent variable is sustenance of fruits and vegetables consumption behavior change. Independent variables are practice for change, changes in social environment, and emotional transformation.
b F1,173=63.446; P<.001; R2=0.268; adjusted R2=0.264.
c F2,172=36.375; P<.001; R2=0.297; adjusted R2=0.289.
d F3,171=26.374; P<.001; R2=0.316; adjusted R2=0.304.
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