Martingano D, Renson A, Martingano AJ, Martingano FX. Variations in Progression and Regression of Precancerous Lesions of the Uterine Cervix on Cytology Testing Among Women of Different Races. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2018;118(1):8–18. doi: https://doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2018.003.
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Although not incorporated into current cervical cancer screening guidelines, racial differences are known to persist in both occurrence of and outcomes related to cervical cancer.
To compare the differences in progression and regression of precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix on cervical cytologic analysis among women of different races who adhered to cervical cancer screening recommendations and follow-up.
Retrospective cohort study comparing differences in precancerous lesion diagnoses for patients receiving adequate evaluation according to the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines. The authors fit Markov multistate models to estimate self-reported race-specific expected wait times and hazard ratios for each possible regression and progression and compared a race model with an intercept-only model using a likelihood ratio test.
The sample included 5472 women receiving a Papanicolaou test between January 2006 and September 2016, contributing a total of 24,316 person-years of follow-up. Of 21 hazard ratios tested for significance, the following 4 hazard ratios (95% CIs) were statistically significant: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) progression to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) for Hispanic patients (0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.96); LSIL regression to ASC-US for Hispanic patients (1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.31), LSIL regression to ASC-US for Asian patients (1.91; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion regression to LSIL for black patients (0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96). There is an observed trend that all racial groups other than white had a slower rate of progression from ASC-US to LSIL, with Hispanics having demonstrated the slowest rate from ASC-US to LSIL. Hispanics also demonstrated the fastest rate from LSIL to HSIL when compared with all other race categories. In regressions, blacks had the slowest rate of regression from HSIL to LSIL, and Asians had the fastest rate from LSIL to ASC-US. The Hispanic group demonstrated the fastest expected progression (17.6 months; 95% CI, 11.5-25.5), as well as the fastest regression (27.6 months; 95% CI, 21.5-35.6), and the black group has the slowest expected times for both progression (28.1 months; 95% CI, 14.6-47.2) and regression (49 months; 95% CI, 29.1-86.2). The number of visits (1 vs ≥2) in the study was differentially distributed both by race (P=.033) and by last diagnosis (P<.001).
Variations in precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix are not uniform across races.
a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated.
Abbreviations: ASC-H, atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; ASC-US, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; HSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; LGSIL, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
a Data are reported as No. (%).
Abbreviations: ASC-H, atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; ASC-US, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; HSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; LSIL, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
a Data are presented as mean y (No. of patients who contributed time). Means were calculated from the multistate Markov model including race. Red indicates progression; green, regression.
a Data are given as hazard ratio (95% CI). Likelihood ratio test: χ221=53.73, P<.001.
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