Martingano AJ, Martingano D. Measuring Multidimensional Empathy: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Osteopathic Medical Researchers. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2017;117(11):697–704. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2017.136.
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Osteopathic physicians are increasingly recognizing the importance of empathy for improving patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. This review advocates for a multidimensional perspective of empathy, encompassing both affective and cognitive empathy, and highlights situational and dispositional factors relevant to the curtailment of empathy. A review of the utility of self-report, behavioral, and physiological measures that researchers may use to quantify empathy in further research is also provided. The authors encourage members of the osteopathic medical profession to embrace a fuller understanding of empathy.
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