Tedesco J. Comparison of midforceps, low-forceps, and spontaneous vaginal deliveries. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1989;89(4):461. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.19126.96.36.1991.
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A prospective, six-month study compared various maternal and neonatal parameters among spontaneous vaginal (n = 47), low-forceps (n = 21), and midforceps (n = 15) deliveries. All three groups had good neonatal and maternal outcomes. The only significant differences (P greater than .01) were the one-minute Apgar scores between the low-forceps and midforceps groups and parity between the spontaneous vaginal and low-forceps deliveries. The findings did not reveal poorer neonatal outcomes or excessive maternal morbidity, thus supporting the continued use of forceps in properly selected patients.
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