Nadler SF. Nonpharmacologic Management of Pain. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2004;104(11_suppl):6S–12S. doi: .
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Pain is a complex phenomenon with various causes and issues associated with its occurrence. This complexity is especially true for those who have chronic pain. In light of the multifactorial nature of this problem, the treatment plan has to be individualized for each patient. The nonpharmacologic management of pain is the focus of this review article with an attempt to substantiate the individual components through the peer-reviewed medical literature. Strategies that have support in patients with chronic pain include the use of manipulation and mobilization, exercise, and psychological intervention; bed rest, bracing, and therapeutic modalities have not been validated in this patient population. The active use of heat modalities through a wearable wrap that allows patients to remain active during treatment has demonstrated efficacy in patients with acute pain and may be beneficial in patients with chronic pain, as well. The goal of treatment may not necessarily be to cure pain, but to manage it and restore functionality.
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