The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association (JAOA) requires references for all material derived from the work of others and to document statistical data. References should be numbered consecutively with arabic numerals according to their first mention in the text. In text, figure legends, and table footnotes, references should appear directly after the information to which they correspond (not necessarily at the end of the sentence) and should be identified with superscript arabic numerals. All references that appear in the text should appear in the reference list at the end of the manuscript, and vice versa.

When referencing a journal article, include the name(s) of the author(s) (if the article has more than 6 authors, list the first 3 authors, followed by "et al"), the complete title of the article, name of the journal (use the abbreviations listed in Index Medicus or in the PubMed database), year of publication, volume number, issue number, inclusive page numbers, and, if available, direct URLs or digital object identifiers (DOIs) to open-access articles. Authors must provide photocopies of journal articles that are not accessible through URLs or DOIs upon request.

When referencing a book, include the name(s) of the author(s), chapter title (if appropriate), name(s) of the editor(s), book title, edition number, name and location of the publisher, year of publication, and page numbers (if referencing a chapter or specific section of the book). If various pages from a book are referenced throughout a manuscript, reference the specific page numbers within the text of the manuscript. For example, a statement that contains information from page 44 of reference 1 would appear as follows: According to the AMA Manual of Style, ibid and op cit should not be used in reference lists.1(p44)

References to personal communication should be made within the text and not in the references list. Include the name, highest academic degree, form of communication (eg, oral, written), and the date of the correspondence. For example, "In a conversation with David M. Johnson, DO (September 2005)...."

Products and software should also be referenced within the text, listing the product name, the name of the company that produced the product, and the version of the product (if applicable). For example, "InStat software suite (version 4.00; GraphPad Software Inc)."

All authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their reference citations and for the accuracy of reference attributions in text. Authors must also provide photocopies of any referenced materials upon request. In the instance that plagiarism is discovered, manuscripts will be automatically rejected, and authors may be barred from future submissions to the JAOA.

Before submitting manuscripts to the JAOA, authors must verify that all references appearing in the references section are numbered sequentially, appear in the text in that order, and are formatted according to the examples that follow. Manuscripts that do not conform to this format will be returned to the authors for correction before they are accepted for review by the JAOA. For additional information, please see Riordan L. Modern-day considerations for references in scientific writing. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2012;112(8):567-569.

Published Materials


Shah AV, Mullens DJ, Van Duyn LJ, Januchowski RP. Multitasking behaviors of osteopathic medical students. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014;114(8):654-659. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.130

If the article type is not apparent in the title of the article (eg, case report, editorial, letter, review article), note the special department in brackets following the title.

Siu G, Jaffe JD. Osteopathic manipulative medicine for carpal tunnel syndrome [review]. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2012;112(3):127-139. Accessed September 3, 2014.

For articles with 6 or fewer authors, list each author's surname followed by his or her initials without periods.

Sampson S, Meng M, Schulte A, Trainor D, Montenegro R, Aufiero D. Management of dupuytren contracture with ultrasound-guided lidocaine injection and needle aponeurotomy coupled with osteopathic manipulative treatment. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2011;111(2):113-116. Accessed September 3, 2014.

For articles with more than 6 authors, the names of the first 3 authors are used, followed by "et al."

Gilbert JW, Vogt M, Windsor RE, et al. Vestibular dysfunction in patients with chronic pain or underlying neurologic disorders. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014;114(3):172-178. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.034

Articles published online only may have an article number rather than a page number.In the following example, "9" is the article number and takes the place of page numbers.

Romanelli F, Bird E, Ryan M. Learning styles: a review of theory, application, and best practices. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009;73(1):9.


Repas TB. Managing loss of glycemic control in middle-aged patients with diabetes: the role of GLP-1 receptor agonists in combination-therapy regimens. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014;114(5 suppl 2):S14-S21. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.085


Surek CC, Lorimer SD, Dougherty JJ, Stephens RE. Teaching of anterior cruciate ligament function in osteopathic medical education [published correction appears in J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2011;111(5):312]. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2011;111(4):225-228. Accessed July 31, 2012.


Siu VN, Cooper A, Rezk M, Terzella M, Yao S, Gilliar W. Effect of OMT on heart rate in normotensive and prehypertensive individuals [abstract S7]. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2012;112(1):36. 


Glover JC, Rennie PR. Strain and counterstrain approach. In: Chila AG, executive ed. Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011:749-762.

Still AT. Autobiography of Andrew T. Still with a History of the Discovery and Development of the Science of Osteopathy. Rev ed. Kirksville, MO: published by the author; 1908.

Web Page

MOL timeline. Federation of State Medical Boards website. Accessed June 4, 2012.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Fact Sheet: National Estimates and General Information on Diabetes and Prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011. Accessed June 4, 2012.


Kibuuka H. Religiosity and Attitudes on Intimacy: Implications for the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Central Uganda (Immune Deficiency) [master's thesis]. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University; 2005.


Starkweather AR. The Effect of Anti-Depressant Therapy on Psychological Stress and Cytokines in Lumbar Herniated Disc Patients: Implications for Quality of Life [dissertation]. Chicago, IL: Loyola University; 2005.

Unpublished Materials

Paper Presented at a Conference

Davies PD, Romer LM, Ramsay RL. Assessment of urine concentration in athletes: an evaluation of four field methods. Paper presented at: European College of Sports Medicine Fifth Annual Congress; July 2000; Jyvaskyla, Finland.

In Press (accepted but not yet published material)

Kramp ME. Case series report: combined manual therapy techniques for the treatment of infertility. J Am Osteopath Assoc. In press.

[Updated April 2018]

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