Sharma M, Anyimukwu C, Kim RW, Nahar VK, Ford MA. Predictors of Responsible Drinking or Abstinence Among College Students Who Binge Drink: A Multitheory Model Approach. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2018;. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2018.120.
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Binge drinking is a salient problem on college campuses, with estimates as high as 40% of students engaging in it. Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences among college students, such as suicide attempts, unsafe sex practices, property damage, and driving under the influence. Several behavioral approaches in this regard have had modest impact and only short-term effects, however.
To use the multitheory model (MTM) of health behavior change to predict initiation and sustenance of responsible drinking or abstinence among binge-drinking college students in a sample drawn from a large southern public university.
This cross-sectional survey study included a sample of college students who binge drank in the past 30 days. A 39-item face- and content-valid instrument was used. In addition, construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency reliability using the Cronbach α were established. Hierarchical regression modeling was used to build models.
A total of 289 students participated. The Cronbach α for the scale and all subscales ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 and demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability. Construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis yielded 1-factor solutions for each of the subscales. On hierarchical regression modeling, gender (P=.05), race/ethnicity (P=.004), behavioral confidence (P=.029), and changes in physical environment (P=.001) were associated with intended initiation for drinking responsibly/abstinence behavior change. The addition of MTM constructs led to a significant increase in R2 of 0.20 (F3,194=18.1; P<.001). The sustenance constructs yielded a significant increase in R2 of 0.20 (F3,193=19.4; P<.001).
This study provides empirical justification for MTM constructs that can be used to inculcate the intention to drink responsibly or abstain among college students who binge drink. This predictive model may prove valuable in the design of interventions aiming to improve responsible drinking behavior in this population.
a Data may not add up to 289 owing to missing responses.
a Possible and observed range.
a Dependent variable is initiation for drink responsibly/abstinence behavior change. Independent variables are gender (0=female, 1=male), race/ethnicity (0=other, 1=white), work (0=no, 1=yes), participatory dialogue, behavioral confidence, and changes in physical environment; B=unstandardized coefficient; β=standardized coefficient.
b F3,197=6.17; P<.001; R2=0.09; adjusted R2=0.07; ΔR2=0.09; ΔF=6.17.
c F6,194=12.9; P<.001; R2=0.29; adjusted R2=0.26; ΔR2=0.20; ΔF=18.1.
a Dependent variable is sustenance for drink responsibly/abstinence behavior change; Independent variables are gender (0=female, 1=male), race/ethnicity (0=other, 1=white), work (0=no, 1=yes), changes in social environment, practice for change, and emotional transformation; B=unstandardized coefficient; β=standardized coefficient.
b F3,196=8.40; P<.001; R2=0.11; adjusted R2=0.10; ΔR2=0.11; ΔF=8.40.
c F6,193=15.07; P<.001; R2=0.32; adjusted R2=0.30; ΔR2=0.20; ΔF=19.4.
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