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Original Contribution  |   July 2016
Association Between Method of Delivery and Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
Author Notes
  • From the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine in Dublin (Student Doctor Kling and Dr Haile) and in Athens (Student Doctor Francescon) and the School of Nursing at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (Dr Chertok). 
  •  *Address correspondence to Zelalem T. Haile, PhD, MPH, Department of Social Medicine, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, 6775 Bobcat Way, Dublin, OH 43016-1406. E-mail: haile@ohio.edu
     
Article Information
Obstetrics and Gynecology / Pediatrics
Original Contribution   |   July 2016
Association Between Method of Delivery and Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, July 2016, Vol. 116, 430-439. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2016.087
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, July 2016, Vol. 116, 430-439. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2016.087
Abstract

Context: Studies have shown that exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Method of delivery (MOD) is a barrier that may hinder breastfeeding practices. However, research examining the association between MOD and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge is lacking.

Objective: To examine the association between MOD and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge.

Methods: We used a cross-sectional study design to conduct a secondary data analysis of 1494 women who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II between 2005 and 2007. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to estimate the OR and 95% CI for the association between MOD and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge, after adjusting for potential confounding variables.

Results: The crude prevalence rates of vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery were 74.8% and 25.2%, respectively. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge was 70.6% among respondents who gave birth by cesarean delivery compared with 79.9% of women who gave birth vaginally (P=.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors, the odds of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge were lower among women who gave birth by cesarean delivery compared with women who gave birth vaginally (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.71).

Conclusion: Women who give birth by cesarean delivery may require additional attention, assistance, and encouragement during their hospital stay to improve rates of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. Health care professionals should address the issue of MOD when promoting exclusive breastfeeding to maximize the potential for longer-term breastfeeding success.

Cesarean delivery is typically indicated as a method of delivery (MOD) when it is considered safer than vaginal delivery. Although the World Health Organization recommends a 10% to 15% cesarean delivery rate, most countries exceed the recommendation.1,2 Since the late 1990s, the rate of elective cesarean deliveries has increased worldwide, mainly to avoid damage to the pelvic floor.3 The cesarean delivery rate in the United States increased from 20.7% in 1996 to 32.9% in 2009; however, this rate has declined slightly from 32.9% in 2009 to 32.7% in 2013.1,4 The high rates of cesarean deliveries in the United States highlight the importance for health care professionals and pregnant women to understand the possible effects of the operation, including breastfeeding practices. Although medically indicated cesarean deliveries can be lifesaving for the mother and newborn, several studies have shown complications and negative health outcomes associated with this MOD.5-7 
The World Health Organization recommends that newborns and infants be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, with continued breastfeeding for at least 12 months.8 A 2007 review examining breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries found a substantial association between breastfeeding and reduced risk of many diseases in mothers and infants.9 The benefits of breastfeeding have been widely studied and include notable declines in childhood obesity,10 hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high cholesterol, as well as increased rate of brain development.9,11 Also, in a 2010 study, mothers who exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge were more likely to continue breastfeeding.12 
To our knowledge, few studies have examined the association between MOD and breastfeeding in the United States. Previous studies that examined this association have reported contradicting results.13-16 Systematic reviews11,13 have found a substantial delay in initiating breastfeeding when mothers have cesarean delivery compared with mothers who deliver vaginally. Other studies have found no statistically significant association between MOD and breastfeeding initiation.10,12 None of these studies10-13 examined the association between MOD and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. In this context, we examined the association between MOD and exclusively breastfeeding at hospital discharge after adjusting for potential confounders. 
Methods
We used data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II)17 that was collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration between 2005 and 2007. In the IFPS II, a longitudinal survey was distributed to a national consumer opinion panel of 500,000 households. The survey comprised 1 prenatal and 1 neonatal questionnaire and a series of 9 postnatal questionnaires; all questionnaires were sent via regular mail. A brief birth screening telephone interview was administered to achieve the sample goals of healthy-term or near-term singleton newborns. Of the 4900 respondents in the IFPS II study, approximately 3000 answered the neonatal questionnaire. In total, 2560 responded to the question pertaining to the type of feeding at hospital or birth center discharge (herein “hospital discharge”). Questionnaires that were either missing data about their MOD or other covariates adjusted in the multivariable model were excluded. 
The main outcome of interest was exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. The questionnaire asked, “When you left the hospital or birth center, how were you feeding your baby?” Options included “breastfeeding only,” “formula feeding only,” or “both breast and formula feeding.” A dichotomous exclusive breastfeeding variable was created by coding breastfeeding only responses as “yes” for exclusive breastfeeding and formula feeding only or both breast and formula feeding responses as “no” for exclusive breastfeeding. 
The primary independent variable was MOD, which was coded as a dichotomous variable. The questionnaire asked “How was your baby delivered?” Responses indicating vaginally and not induced or vaginally and induced were categorized as “delivering vaginally,” and responses indicating a planned cesarean delivery or an unplanned or emergency cesarean delivery were categorized as “cesarean delivery.” 
Covariates included mother’s age, marital status, race or ethnicity, education, prenatal smoking, gestational age, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, previous cesarean delivery, and prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed. The percentage of federal poverty level in IFPS II was calculated using the household size and income. We calculated body mass index (BMI) using the formula BMI=(weight, lb/[height, in])2×703. To determine the gestational weight gain during pregnancy, we used the Institute of Medicine’s revised cutoffs for gestational weight gain: underweight (BMI<18.5; recommended weight gain: 12.5-18 kg), normal weight (BMI=18.5-24.9; recommended weight gain, 11.5-16 kg), overweight (BMI=25.0-29.9; recommended weight gain, 7-11.5 kg), and obese (BMI≥30; recommended weight gain, 5-9 kg).18 
Statistical Analysis
Frequencies and proportions were used to describe the data. The association between MOD and exclusive breastfeeding was examined using a χ2 test. To determine the independent association of MOD and exclusive breastfeeding, we used multivariable logistic regression analyses and adjusted for potential confounders. We determined which covariates to include in the multivariable logistic regression analyses on the basis of known relationships between those variables and exclusive breastfeeding. We also examined pairwise interactions between MOD and each covariate adjusted in the multivariable model. None of the interaction terms was significant. The OR, 95% CIs for ORs, and P values were calculated for each of the independent variables. Additionally, we conducted a subgroup analysis among respondents who had a cesarean delivery to examine the association between type of cesarean delivery (planned vs unplanned) and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. We considered a value of P<.05 to be statistically significant. To assess for potential collinearity, regression diagnostics were used. The variance inflation factor and tolerance values were all within acceptable limits. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS software (version 9.3; SAS Institute). 
Results
Overall, 7 respondents were excluded because of missing data about their MOD, and 1059 respondents were excluded because of other covariates adjusted in the multivariable model, resulting in a final sample of 1494 respondents. The overall characteristics of the study sample are displayed in Table 1. Of 1494 respondents, 1117 (74.8%) gave birth vaginally and 377 (25.2%) gave birth by cesarean delivery. Among the overall respondents, 1159 (77.6%) exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge. A total of 666 respondents (44.6%) had a normal BMI, and 698 (46.7%) had an above-average gestational weight gain according to the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy. 
Table 1.
Overall Demographic Characteristics, Gestational Information, and Intent to Breastfeed by Method of Deliverya
Characteristic Overall (N=1494) Method of Delivery P Valueb
Vaginal (n=1117) Cesarean (n=377)
    Age, y
        18-24 202 (13.5) 167 (15.0) 35 (9.3)
        25-34 1016 (68.0) 783 (70.1) 233 (61.8) <.001
        >34 276 (18.47) 167 (15.0) 109 (28.9)
    Marital Status
        Never married 131 (8.8) 99 (8.9) 32 (8.5)
        Currently married 1299 (87.0) 971 (86.9) 328 (87.0) .948
        Other 64 (4.3) 47 (4.2) 17 (4.5)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1275 (85.3) 955 (85.5) 320 (84.9)
        Non-Hispanic black 58 (3.9) 45 (4.0) 13 (3.5) .171
        Hispanic 94 (6.3) 74 (6.6) 20 (5.3)
        Other 67 (4.5) 43 (3.9) 24 (6.4)
    Education
        High school or less 257 (17.2) 201 (18.0) 56 (14.9)
        Some college 634 (42.4) 473 (42.4) 161 (42.7) .339
        College graduate 603 (40.4) 443 (39.7) 160 (42.4)
    Income, % of Poverty Level
        <185 655 (43.8) 515 (46.1) 140 (37.1)
        185-349 610 (40.8) 442 (39.6) 168 (44.6) .007
        >349 229 (15.3) 160 (14.3) 69 (18.3)
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 61 (4.1) 51 (4.6) 10 (2.7)
        Normal 666 (44.6) 546 (48.9) 120 (31.8) <.001
        Overweight 406 (27.2) 299 (26.8) 107 (28.4)
        Obese 361 (24.2) 221 (19.8) 140 (37.1)
    Gestational Weight Gainc
        Below recommendation 319 (21.4) 255 (22.8) 64 (17.0)
        At recommendation 477 (31.9) 369 (33.0) 108 (28.7) .002
        Above recommendation 698 (46.7) 493 (44.1) 205 (54.4)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1392 (93.2) 1047 (93.7) 345 (91.5) .139
        Yes 102 (6.8) 70 (6.3) 32 (8.5)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 185 (12.4) 140 (12.5) 45 (11.9) .761
        ≥38 1309 (87.6) 977 (87.5) 332 (88.1)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1457 (97.5) 1093 (97.9) 364 (96.6) .160
        Yes 37 (2.5) 24 (2.2) 13 (3.5)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1143 (76.5) 1069 (95.7) 74 (19.6)
        Yes 351 (23.5) 48 (4.3) 303 (80.4) <.001
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 434 (29.1) 311 (27.8) 123 (32.6) .077
        Yes 1060 (71.0) 806 (72.2) 254 (67.4)
    Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
        No 335 (22.4) 224 (20.1) 111 (29.4) <.001
        Yes 1159 (77.6) 893 (79.9) 266 (70.6)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b χ2 test.

c These are calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

Table 1.
Overall Demographic Characteristics, Gestational Information, and Intent to Breastfeed by Method of Deliverya
Characteristic Overall (N=1494) Method of Delivery P Valueb
Vaginal (n=1117) Cesarean (n=377)
    Age, y
        18-24 202 (13.5) 167 (15.0) 35 (9.3)
        25-34 1016 (68.0) 783 (70.1) 233 (61.8) <.001
        >34 276 (18.47) 167 (15.0) 109 (28.9)
    Marital Status
        Never married 131 (8.8) 99 (8.9) 32 (8.5)
        Currently married 1299 (87.0) 971 (86.9) 328 (87.0) .948
        Other 64 (4.3) 47 (4.2) 17 (4.5)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1275 (85.3) 955 (85.5) 320 (84.9)
        Non-Hispanic black 58 (3.9) 45 (4.0) 13 (3.5) .171
        Hispanic 94 (6.3) 74 (6.6) 20 (5.3)
        Other 67 (4.5) 43 (3.9) 24 (6.4)
    Education
        High school or less 257 (17.2) 201 (18.0) 56 (14.9)
        Some college 634 (42.4) 473 (42.4) 161 (42.7) .339
        College graduate 603 (40.4) 443 (39.7) 160 (42.4)
    Income, % of Poverty Level
        <185 655 (43.8) 515 (46.1) 140 (37.1)
        185-349 610 (40.8) 442 (39.6) 168 (44.6) .007
        >349 229 (15.3) 160 (14.3) 69 (18.3)
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 61 (4.1) 51 (4.6) 10 (2.7)
        Normal 666 (44.6) 546 (48.9) 120 (31.8) <.001
        Overweight 406 (27.2) 299 (26.8) 107 (28.4)
        Obese 361 (24.2) 221 (19.8) 140 (37.1)
    Gestational Weight Gainc
        Below recommendation 319 (21.4) 255 (22.8) 64 (17.0)
        At recommendation 477 (31.9) 369 (33.0) 108 (28.7) .002
        Above recommendation 698 (46.7) 493 (44.1) 205 (54.4)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1392 (93.2) 1047 (93.7) 345 (91.5) .139
        Yes 102 (6.8) 70 (6.3) 32 (8.5)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 185 (12.4) 140 (12.5) 45 (11.9) .761
        ≥38 1309 (87.6) 977 (87.5) 332 (88.1)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1457 (97.5) 1093 (97.9) 364 (96.6) .160
        Yes 37 (2.5) 24 (2.2) 13 (3.5)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1143 (76.5) 1069 (95.7) 74 (19.6)
        Yes 351 (23.5) 48 (4.3) 303 (80.4) <.001
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 434 (29.1) 311 (27.8) 123 (32.6) .077
        Yes 1060 (71.0) 806 (72.2) 254 (67.4)
    Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
        No 335 (22.4) 224 (20.1) 111 (29.4) <.001
        Yes 1159 (77.6) 893 (79.9) 266 (70.6)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b χ2 test.

c These are calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

×
Table 2 includes the bivariate association between the characteristics of the study sample by the newborn feeding status. The 266 respondents who delivered by cesarean birth (23.0%) were less likely to exclusively breastfeed at hospital discharge compared with the 893 respondents who delivered vaginally (77.1%) (P<.01). Additionally, the 962 respondents (83.0%) who stated that they had prenatal intentions to exclusively breastfeed in the first few weeks were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed at hospital discharge compared with the 197 respondents (17.0%) who had no intention (P<.01). Exclusively breastfeeding at hospital discharge differed by status of previous cesarean delivery. The 258 respondents who had a previous cesarean delivery (22.3%) were less likely to exclusively breastfeed than the 901 respondents who never had a previous cesarean delivery (77.7%) (P=.037). With the exception of income, gestational age, and NICU stay, all other covariates were statistically significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. 
Table 2.
Demographic Characteristics, Gestational Information, and Intent to Breastfeed by Newborn Feeding Status (N=1494)a
Characteristic Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge P Valueb
Yes (n=1159) No (n=335)
    Age, y
        18-24 142 (12.3) 60 (17.9)
        25-34 802 (69.2) 214 (63.9) .027
        >34 215 (18.6) 61 (18.2)
    Marital Status
        Never Married 86 (7.4) 45 (13.4)
        Currently Married 1028 (88.7) 271 (80.9) .001
        Other 45 (3.9) 19 (5.7)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1034 (89.2) 241 (71.9)
        Non-Hispanic black 32 (2.8) 26 (7.8) <.001
        Hispanic 51 (4.4) 43 (12.8)
        Other 42 (3.6) 25 (7.5)
    Education
        High school or less 171 (14.8) 86 (25.7)
        Some college 488 (42.1) 146 (43.6) <.001
        College graduate 500 (43.1) 103 (30.8)
    Income, % of Poverty Level
        <185 498 (43.0) 157 (46.9)
        185-349 480 (41.4) 130 (38.8) .446
        >349 181 (15.6) 48 (14.3)
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 49 (4.2) 12 (3.6)
        Normal 534 (46.1) 132 (39.4) .045
        Overweight 314 (27.1) 92 (27.5)
        Obese 262 (22.6) 99 (29.6)
    Gestational Weight Gainc
        Below recommendation 223 (19.2) 96 (28.7)
        At recommendation 380 (32.8) 97 (29.0) .001
        Above recommendation 556 (48.0) 142 (42.4)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1090 (94.1) 302 (90.2) .013
        Yes 69 (6.0) 33 (9.9)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 134 (11.6) 51 (15.2) .073
        ≥38 1025 (88.4) 284 (84.8)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1135 (97.9) 322 (96.1) .061
        Yes 24 (2.1) 13 (3.9)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 901 (77.7) 242 (72.2) .037
        Yes 258 (22.3) 93 (27.8)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 197 (17.0) 237 (70.8) <.001
        Yes 962 (83.0) 98 (29.3)
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 893 (77.1) 224 (66.9) .001
        Cesarean 266 (23.0) 111 (33.1)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b χ2 test.

c Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

Table 2.
Demographic Characteristics, Gestational Information, and Intent to Breastfeed by Newborn Feeding Status (N=1494)a
Characteristic Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge P Valueb
Yes (n=1159) No (n=335)
    Age, y
        18-24 142 (12.3) 60 (17.9)
        25-34 802 (69.2) 214 (63.9) .027
        >34 215 (18.6) 61 (18.2)
    Marital Status
        Never Married 86 (7.4) 45 (13.4)
        Currently Married 1028 (88.7) 271 (80.9) .001
        Other 45 (3.9) 19 (5.7)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1034 (89.2) 241 (71.9)
        Non-Hispanic black 32 (2.8) 26 (7.8) <.001
        Hispanic 51 (4.4) 43 (12.8)
        Other 42 (3.6) 25 (7.5)
    Education
        High school or less 171 (14.8) 86 (25.7)
        Some college 488 (42.1) 146 (43.6) <.001
        College graduate 500 (43.1) 103 (30.8)
    Income, % of Poverty Level
        <185 498 (43.0) 157 (46.9)
        185-349 480 (41.4) 130 (38.8) .446
        >349 181 (15.6) 48 (14.3)
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 49 (4.2) 12 (3.6)
        Normal 534 (46.1) 132 (39.4) .045
        Overweight 314 (27.1) 92 (27.5)
        Obese 262 (22.6) 99 (29.6)
    Gestational Weight Gainc
        Below recommendation 223 (19.2) 96 (28.7)
        At recommendation 380 (32.8) 97 (29.0) .001
        Above recommendation 556 (48.0) 142 (42.4)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1090 (94.1) 302 (90.2) .013
        Yes 69 (6.0) 33 (9.9)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 134 (11.6) 51 (15.2) .073
        ≥38 1025 (88.4) 284 (84.8)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1135 (97.9) 322 (96.1) .061
        Yes 24 (2.1) 13 (3.9)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 901 (77.7) 242 (72.2) .037
        Yes 258 (22.3) 93 (27.8)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 197 (17.0) 237 (70.8) <.001
        Yes 962 (83.0) 98 (29.3)
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 893 (77.1) 224 (66.9) .001
        Cesarean 266 (23.0) 111 (33.1)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b χ2 test.

c Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

×
The unadjusted and multivariable adjusted odds of exclusively breastfeeding are shown in Table 3. After adjusting for potential confounders, respondents who delivered by cesarean birth were 59% less likely to exclusively breastfeed at hospital discharge compared with respondents who delivered vaginally (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.71). The subgroup analysis shows that among respondents who delivered by cesarean birth, no statistically significant differences in the odds of exclusive breastfeeding exist between those who had a planned cesarean delivery and those who had an unplanned cesarean delivery (unadjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.61-1.74) (multivariate adjusted OR, 0.99; CI, 0.46-2.10). 
Table 3.
Demographic Characteristics and Association Between Method of Delivery and Exclusive Breastfeeding (N=1494)
Characteristic Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Multivariable Adjusted OR (95% CI)
    Age,y
        18-24 1 1
        25-34 1.58 (1.13-2.22)a 1.26 (0.82-1.94)
        >34 1.49 (0.98-2.26) 1.27 (0.74-2.17)
    Marital Status
        Never married 1 1
        Currently married 1.99 (1.35-2.92)b 1.08 (0.66-1.77)
        Other 1.24 (0.65-2.37) 0.82 (0.36-1.84)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1 1
        Non-Hispanic black 0.29 (0.17-0.49)b 0.58 (0.30-1.12)
        Hispanic 0.28 (0.18-0.43)b 0.38 (0.23-0.65)b
        Other 0.39 (0.23-0.66)b 0.40 (0.21-0.75)a
    Education
        High school or less 1 1
        Some college 1.68 (1.22-2.31)b 1.44 (0.97-2.12)
        College graduate 2.44 (1.75-3.41)b 1.62 (1.04-2.48)c
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 1.01 (0.52-1.95) 1.43 (0.65-3.14)
        Normal 1 1
        Overweight 0.84 (0.63-1.14) 0.85 (0.58-1.23)
        Obese 0.65 (0.49-0.88)a 0.75 (0.52-1.10)
    Gestational Weight Gaind
        Below recommendation 0.59 (0.43-0.82)a 0.60 (0.40-0.89)c
        At recommendation 1 1
        Above recommendation 1.00 (0.75-1.34) 1.03 (0.72-1.46)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.58 (0.38-0.89)c 1.06 (0.61-1.82)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 0.73 (0.51-1.03) 0.63 (0.41-0.96)c
        ≥38 1 1
    NICU, ≥3 d
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.52 (0.26-1.04) 0.54 (0.23-1.23)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.75 (0.565-0.98)c 1.55 (0.88-2.73)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 1 1
        Yes 11.81 (8.92-15.64)b 11.03 (8.19-14.84)b
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 1 1
        Cesarean 0.60 (0.46-0.78)b 0.41 (0.24-0.71)a

a P<.01.

b P<.001.

c P<.05.

d Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

Table 3.
Demographic Characteristics and Association Between Method of Delivery and Exclusive Breastfeeding (N=1494)
Characteristic Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Multivariable Adjusted OR (95% CI)
    Age,y
        18-24 1 1
        25-34 1.58 (1.13-2.22)a 1.26 (0.82-1.94)
        >34 1.49 (0.98-2.26) 1.27 (0.74-2.17)
    Marital Status
        Never married 1 1
        Currently married 1.99 (1.35-2.92)b 1.08 (0.66-1.77)
        Other 1.24 (0.65-2.37) 0.82 (0.36-1.84)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1 1
        Non-Hispanic black 0.29 (0.17-0.49)b 0.58 (0.30-1.12)
        Hispanic 0.28 (0.18-0.43)b 0.38 (0.23-0.65)b
        Other 0.39 (0.23-0.66)b 0.40 (0.21-0.75)a
    Education
        High school or less 1 1
        Some college 1.68 (1.22-2.31)b 1.44 (0.97-2.12)
        College graduate 2.44 (1.75-3.41)b 1.62 (1.04-2.48)c
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 1.01 (0.52-1.95) 1.43 (0.65-3.14)
        Normal 1 1
        Overweight 0.84 (0.63-1.14) 0.85 (0.58-1.23)
        Obese 0.65 (0.49-0.88)a 0.75 (0.52-1.10)
    Gestational Weight Gaind
        Below recommendation 0.59 (0.43-0.82)a 0.60 (0.40-0.89)c
        At recommendation 1 1
        Above recommendation 1.00 (0.75-1.34) 1.03 (0.72-1.46)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.58 (0.38-0.89)c 1.06 (0.61-1.82)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 0.73 (0.51-1.03) 0.63 (0.41-0.96)c
        ≥38 1 1
    NICU, ≥3 d
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.52 (0.26-1.04) 0.54 (0.23-1.23)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.75 (0.565-0.98)c 1.55 (0.88-2.73)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 1 1
        Yes 11.81 (8.92-15.64)b 11.03 (8.19-14.84)b
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 1 1
        Cesarean 0.60 (0.46-0.78)b 0.41 (0.24-0.71)a

a P<.01.

b P<.001.

c P<.05.

d Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

×
Discussion
Among the respondents who participated in IFPS II, cesarean delivery was negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. This association was independent of age, marital status, education, income, BMI, gestational weight gain, prenatal smoking, gestational age, NICU stay, previous cesarean delivery, and prenatal intent to exclusively breastfeed. However, among those who delivered by cesarean birth, the odds of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge did not differ by the type of cesarean delivery, indicating that any cesarean delivery (planned or unplanned) was negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. 
Our findings are consistent with and add to existing literature that has reported a negative association between cesarean delivery and breastfeeding.11,13 The mechanisms for having lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge could be multifactorial, including hormonal, social, or procedural causes.19-22 For example, several studies have shown that certain types of anesthesia can affect lactation.23-25 Other possible causes include delayed breastfeeding initiation after cesarean delivery, maternal-newborn separation, and possible delayed lactogenesis.26-28 
The 2 widely known hormones that play a major role in lactation are the pituitary hormones prolactin and oxytocin.29 Milk production is controlled by prolactin levels, and milk ejection occurs in response to a surge in oxytocin.29 Prolactin periodically surges to stimulate many processes during pregnancy, including lactation and breast tissue development.30 Several studies have explored the specific roles and mechanism of action of the hormone prolactin during pregnancy and postpartum period.31-33 After delivery of the placenta, the inhibitory factors of prolactin decrease, including progesterone and other placental hormones.34 Further investigation of the biochemical mechanism of action associated with MOD on hormonal changes that affect lactation is important. 
The current study found other factors that showed statistically significant associations with increased odds of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. These factors included race or ethnicity, education, gestational age, and prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed, all of which have been previously noted.26,35-37 A strong positive association was found between maternal prenatal intention to breastfeed and breastfeeding at hospital discharge (OR, 11.03; 95% CI, 8.19-14.84), supporting the need for education about breastfeeding. Several studies evaluating the effectiveness of prenatal breastfeeding education have found that prenatal breastfeeding education has a potential to improve breastfeeding rates.38-41 Providing extra prenatal education for mothers who are planning to have a cesarean delivery could improve exclusive breastfeeding by increasing their intentions to breastfeed. Mothers need to be aware of the possible effect cesarean deliveries have on breastfeeding before making a decision. Early postnatal breastfeeding education and assistance for women who have either a planned or emergency cesarean delivery can also support improved breastfeeding outcomes. 
A limitation of the current study is that the IFPS II data were collected by women volunteering to complete a mailed survey, which makes it susceptible to volunteer bias, recall bias, and selection bias. This problem is further exacerbated by a loss of 41% of the eligible study sample due to incomplete information. The final analytical sample statistically significantly differed from those with incomplete data by key sociodemographic characteristics, indicating that the results may not be generalizable to the IFPS II study sample (Table 4). However, IFPS II is not a nationally representative dataset and may not produce results that can be generalized to all newborns, pregnant women, and new mothers in the United States. In addition, IFPS II data did not make any distinction between “exclusive breastfeeding at the time of maternal discharge” and “exclusive breastfeeding at the time of infant discharge.” The lack of this distinction could lead to a potentially misleading assumption that newborns who were discharged after their mothers would have the same access to breastfeeding as those who were discharged with their mothers. Likewise, the dichotomous variable of NICU stay (≤3 days) assumes that newborns who spent 3 days or fewer in the NICU could have similar access to breastfeeding as newborns who did not spend any time in the NICU. 
Table 4.
Demographic Characteristics Comparing Respondents in the Final Analytic Sample With Respondents Who Were Excludeda
Characteristic Analytic Sample (n=1494) Incomplete Data (n=1059)b P Valuec
    Age, y
        18-24 202 (13.5) 361 (34.2)
        25-34 1016 (68.0) 570 (54.0) <.001
        >34 276 (18.5) 124 (11.8)
    Marital Status
        Never married 131 (8.8) 242 (27.2)
        Currently married 1299 (86.9) 616 (69.4) <.001
        Other 64 (4.3) 30 (3.4)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1275 (85.3) 797 (80.6)
        Non-Hispanic black 58 (3.9) 60 (6.1) .010
        Hispanic 94 (6.3) 72 (7.3)
        Other 67 (4.9) 60 (6.1)
    Education
        High school or less 257 (17.2) 175 (20.0)
        Some college 634 (42.4) 336 (38.4) .090
        College graduate 603 (40.4) 365 (41.7)
    Body Mass Index
        Normal 61 (4.1) 51 (4.9) .094
        Underweight 666 (44.6) 501 (48.6)
        Overweight 406 (27.2) 259 (25.1)
        Obese 361 (24.2) 219 (21.3)
    Gestational Weight Gaind
        At recommendation 319 (21.4) 151 (15.9) <.001
        Below recommendation 477 (31.9) 258 (27.2)
        Above recommendation 698 (46.7) 538 (56.8)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1392 (93.2) 953 (90.4) .011
        Yes 102 (6.8) 101 (9.6)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 185 (12.4) 132 (12.5) .951
        ≥38 1309 (87.6) 927 (87.5)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1457 (97.5) 1031 (97.4) .791
        Yes 37 (2.5) 28 (2.6)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1143 (76.5) 170 (75.2) .672
        Yes 351 (23.5) 56 (24.8)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 434 (29.1) 247 (25.4) .050
        Yes 1060 (70.9) 726 (74.6)
    Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
        No 335 (22.4) 371 (35.0) <.001
        Yes 1159 (77.6) 688 (65.0)
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 1117 (74.8) 739 (69.8) .005
        Cesarean 377 (25.2) 320 (30.2)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b Some participant responses were missing for age, marital status, race or ethnicity, body mass index, gestational weight gain, prenatal smoking, previous cesarean delivery, and prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed in the first few weeks.

c χ2 test.

d Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

Table 4.
Demographic Characteristics Comparing Respondents in the Final Analytic Sample With Respondents Who Were Excludeda
Characteristic Analytic Sample (n=1494) Incomplete Data (n=1059)b P Valuec
    Age, y
        18-24 202 (13.5) 361 (34.2)
        25-34 1016 (68.0) 570 (54.0) <.001
        >34 276 (18.5) 124 (11.8)
    Marital Status
        Never married 131 (8.8) 242 (27.2)
        Currently married 1299 (86.9) 616 (69.4) <.001
        Other 64 (4.3) 30 (3.4)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1275 (85.3) 797 (80.6)
        Non-Hispanic black 58 (3.9) 60 (6.1) .010
        Hispanic 94 (6.3) 72 (7.3)
        Other 67 (4.9) 60 (6.1)
    Education
        High school or less 257 (17.2) 175 (20.0)
        Some college 634 (42.4) 336 (38.4) .090
        College graduate 603 (40.4) 365 (41.7)
    Body Mass Index
        Normal 61 (4.1) 51 (4.9) .094
        Underweight 666 (44.6) 501 (48.6)
        Overweight 406 (27.2) 259 (25.1)
        Obese 361 (24.2) 219 (21.3)
    Gestational Weight Gaind
        At recommendation 319 (21.4) 151 (15.9) <.001
        Below recommendation 477 (31.9) 258 (27.2)
        Above recommendation 698 (46.7) 538 (56.8)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1392 (93.2) 953 (90.4) .011
        Yes 102 (6.8) 101 (9.6)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 185 (12.4) 132 (12.5) .951
        ≥38 1309 (87.6) 927 (87.5)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1457 (97.5) 1031 (97.4) .791
        Yes 37 (2.5) 28 (2.6)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1143 (76.5) 170 (75.2) .672
        Yes 351 (23.5) 56 (24.8)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 434 (29.1) 247 (25.4) .050
        Yes 1060 (70.9) 726 (74.6)
    Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
        No 335 (22.4) 371 (35.0) <.001
        Yes 1159 (77.6) 688 (65.0)
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 1117 (74.8) 739 (69.8) .005
        Cesarean 377 (25.2) 320 (30.2)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b Some participant responses were missing for age, marital status, race or ethnicity, body mass index, gestational weight gain, prenatal smoking, previous cesarean delivery, and prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed in the first few weeks.

c χ2 test.

d Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

×
The dataset also lacks important factors like timing of breastfeeding initiation. Furthermore, the cross-sectional design does not allow inference regarding causal relationships. In addition, given that this research is based on a secondary analysis of nearly decade-old data, the results should be interpreted with caution because guidelines for breastfeeding mothers, including those who have had a cesarean delivery, have improved after 2005 at most labor and delivery centers as a result of consumer demand, The Joint Commission, the Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care, the World Health Organization, and the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund’s Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. A large national sample size, the diversity of the women who responded to the survey, and our ability to adjust for as many confounding variables as possible constitute some of the strengths of the current study. 
Breastfeeding provides many nutritional, immunologic, and health benefits for newborns and infants.9 Regardless of the type of delivery, mothers and newborns should be able to take advantage of this natural form of nutrition. Future research should focus on identifying specific causes of poor breastfeeding rates in women who undergo cesarean delivery. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of lactation among women who have undergone a cesarean delivery as well as the role of conditions surrounding unplanned cesarean delivery. Understanding this mechanism is important because it can lead to the development of techniques to improve exclusive breastfeeding among these mothers. 
Conclusion
The current study demonstrated lower rates of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge among women who underwent cesarean delivery compared with those who underwent vaginal delivery. More effort is needed to improve early initiation of breastfeeding in women who have cesarean deliveries, including developing and implementing hospital policies that support breastfeeding, training health care professionals to support breastfeeding after cesarean delivery, and providing prenatal and postnatal education and counseling on the importance of breastfeeding. 
Acknowledgments
We thank the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for providing us access to data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. 
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Table 1.
Overall Demographic Characteristics, Gestational Information, and Intent to Breastfeed by Method of Deliverya
Characteristic Overall (N=1494) Method of Delivery P Valueb
Vaginal (n=1117) Cesarean (n=377)
    Age, y
        18-24 202 (13.5) 167 (15.0) 35 (9.3)
        25-34 1016 (68.0) 783 (70.1) 233 (61.8) <.001
        >34 276 (18.47) 167 (15.0) 109 (28.9)
    Marital Status
        Never married 131 (8.8) 99 (8.9) 32 (8.5)
        Currently married 1299 (87.0) 971 (86.9) 328 (87.0) .948
        Other 64 (4.3) 47 (4.2) 17 (4.5)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1275 (85.3) 955 (85.5) 320 (84.9)
        Non-Hispanic black 58 (3.9) 45 (4.0) 13 (3.5) .171
        Hispanic 94 (6.3) 74 (6.6) 20 (5.3)
        Other 67 (4.5) 43 (3.9) 24 (6.4)
    Education
        High school or less 257 (17.2) 201 (18.0) 56 (14.9)
        Some college 634 (42.4) 473 (42.4) 161 (42.7) .339
        College graduate 603 (40.4) 443 (39.7) 160 (42.4)
    Income, % of Poverty Level
        <185 655 (43.8) 515 (46.1) 140 (37.1)
        185-349 610 (40.8) 442 (39.6) 168 (44.6) .007
        >349 229 (15.3) 160 (14.3) 69 (18.3)
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 61 (4.1) 51 (4.6) 10 (2.7)
        Normal 666 (44.6) 546 (48.9) 120 (31.8) <.001
        Overweight 406 (27.2) 299 (26.8) 107 (28.4)
        Obese 361 (24.2) 221 (19.8) 140 (37.1)
    Gestational Weight Gainc
        Below recommendation 319 (21.4) 255 (22.8) 64 (17.0)
        At recommendation 477 (31.9) 369 (33.0) 108 (28.7) .002
        Above recommendation 698 (46.7) 493 (44.1) 205 (54.4)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1392 (93.2) 1047 (93.7) 345 (91.5) .139
        Yes 102 (6.8) 70 (6.3) 32 (8.5)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 185 (12.4) 140 (12.5) 45 (11.9) .761
        ≥38 1309 (87.6) 977 (87.5) 332 (88.1)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1457 (97.5) 1093 (97.9) 364 (96.6) .160
        Yes 37 (2.5) 24 (2.2) 13 (3.5)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1143 (76.5) 1069 (95.7) 74 (19.6)
        Yes 351 (23.5) 48 (4.3) 303 (80.4) <.001
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 434 (29.1) 311 (27.8) 123 (32.6) .077
        Yes 1060 (71.0) 806 (72.2) 254 (67.4)
    Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
        No 335 (22.4) 224 (20.1) 111 (29.4) <.001
        Yes 1159 (77.6) 893 (79.9) 266 (70.6)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b χ2 test.

c These are calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

Table 1.
Overall Demographic Characteristics, Gestational Information, and Intent to Breastfeed by Method of Deliverya
Characteristic Overall (N=1494) Method of Delivery P Valueb
Vaginal (n=1117) Cesarean (n=377)
    Age, y
        18-24 202 (13.5) 167 (15.0) 35 (9.3)
        25-34 1016 (68.0) 783 (70.1) 233 (61.8) <.001
        >34 276 (18.47) 167 (15.0) 109 (28.9)
    Marital Status
        Never married 131 (8.8) 99 (8.9) 32 (8.5)
        Currently married 1299 (87.0) 971 (86.9) 328 (87.0) .948
        Other 64 (4.3) 47 (4.2) 17 (4.5)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1275 (85.3) 955 (85.5) 320 (84.9)
        Non-Hispanic black 58 (3.9) 45 (4.0) 13 (3.5) .171
        Hispanic 94 (6.3) 74 (6.6) 20 (5.3)
        Other 67 (4.5) 43 (3.9) 24 (6.4)
    Education
        High school or less 257 (17.2) 201 (18.0) 56 (14.9)
        Some college 634 (42.4) 473 (42.4) 161 (42.7) .339
        College graduate 603 (40.4) 443 (39.7) 160 (42.4)
    Income, % of Poverty Level
        <185 655 (43.8) 515 (46.1) 140 (37.1)
        185-349 610 (40.8) 442 (39.6) 168 (44.6) .007
        >349 229 (15.3) 160 (14.3) 69 (18.3)
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 61 (4.1) 51 (4.6) 10 (2.7)
        Normal 666 (44.6) 546 (48.9) 120 (31.8) <.001
        Overweight 406 (27.2) 299 (26.8) 107 (28.4)
        Obese 361 (24.2) 221 (19.8) 140 (37.1)
    Gestational Weight Gainc
        Below recommendation 319 (21.4) 255 (22.8) 64 (17.0)
        At recommendation 477 (31.9) 369 (33.0) 108 (28.7) .002
        Above recommendation 698 (46.7) 493 (44.1) 205 (54.4)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1392 (93.2) 1047 (93.7) 345 (91.5) .139
        Yes 102 (6.8) 70 (6.3) 32 (8.5)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 185 (12.4) 140 (12.5) 45 (11.9) .761
        ≥38 1309 (87.6) 977 (87.5) 332 (88.1)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1457 (97.5) 1093 (97.9) 364 (96.6) .160
        Yes 37 (2.5) 24 (2.2) 13 (3.5)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1143 (76.5) 1069 (95.7) 74 (19.6)
        Yes 351 (23.5) 48 (4.3) 303 (80.4) <.001
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 434 (29.1) 311 (27.8) 123 (32.6) .077
        Yes 1060 (71.0) 806 (72.2) 254 (67.4)
    Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
        No 335 (22.4) 224 (20.1) 111 (29.4) <.001
        Yes 1159 (77.6) 893 (79.9) 266 (70.6)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b χ2 test.

c These are calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

×
Table 2.
Demographic Characteristics, Gestational Information, and Intent to Breastfeed by Newborn Feeding Status (N=1494)a
Characteristic Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge P Valueb
Yes (n=1159) No (n=335)
    Age, y
        18-24 142 (12.3) 60 (17.9)
        25-34 802 (69.2) 214 (63.9) .027
        >34 215 (18.6) 61 (18.2)
    Marital Status
        Never Married 86 (7.4) 45 (13.4)
        Currently Married 1028 (88.7) 271 (80.9) .001
        Other 45 (3.9) 19 (5.7)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1034 (89.2) 241 (71.9)
        Non-Hispanic black 32 (2.8) 26 (7.8) <.001
        Hispanic 51 (4.4) 43 (12.8)
        Other 42 (3.6) 25 (7.5)
    Education
        High school or less 171 (14.8) 86 (25.7)
        Some college 488 (42.1) 146 (43.6) <.001
        College graduate 500 (43.1) 103 (30.8)
    Income, % of Poverty Level
        <185 498 (43.0) 157 (46.9)
        185-349 480 (41.4) 130 (38.8) .446
        >349 181 (15.6) 48 (14.3)
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 49 (4.2) 12 (3.6)
        Normal 534 (46.1) 132 (39.4) .045
        Overweight 314 (27.1) 92 (27.5)
        Obese 262 (22.6) 99 (29.6)
    Gestational Weight Gainc
        Below recommendation 223 (19.2) 96 (28.7)
        At recommendation 380 (32.8) 97 (29.0) .001
        Above recommendation 556 (48.0) 142 (42.4)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1090 (94.1) 302 (90.2) .013
        Yes 69 (6.0) 33 (9.9)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 134 (11.6) 51 (15.2) .073
        ≥38 1025 (88.4) 284 (84.8)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1135 (97.9) 322 (96.1) .061
        Yes 24 (2.1) 13 (3.9)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 901 (77.7) 242 (72.2) .037
        Yes 258 (22.3) 93 (27.8)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 197 (17.0) 237 (70.8) <.001
        Yes 962 (83.0) 98 (29.3)
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 893 (77.1) 224 (66.9) .001
        Cesarean 266 (23.0) 111 (33.1)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b χ2 test.

c Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

Table 2.
Demographic Characteristics, Gestational Information, and Intent to Breastfeed by Newborn Feeding Status (N=1494)a
Characteristic Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge P Valueb
Yes (n=1159) No (n=335)
    Age, y
        18-24 142 (12.3) 60 (17.9)
        25-34 802 (69.2) 214 (63.9) .027
        >34 215 (18.6) 61 (18.2)
    Marital Status
        Never Married 86 (7.4) 45 (13.4)
        Currently Married 1028 (88.7) 271 (80.9) .001
        Other 45 (3.9) 19 (5.7)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1034 (89.2) 241 (71.9)
        Non-Hispanic black 32 (2.8) 26 (7.8) <.001
        Hispanic 51 (4.4) 43 (12.8)
        Other 42 (3.6) 25 (7.5)
    Education
        High school or less 171 (14.8) 86 (25.7)
        Some college 488 (42.1) 146 (43.6) <.001
        College graduate 500 (43.1) 103 (30.8)
    Income, % of Poverty Level
        <185 498 (43.0) 157 (46.9)
        185-349 480 (41.4) 130 (38.8) .446
        >349 181 (15.6) 48 (14.3)
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 49 (4.2) 12 (3.6)
        Normal 534 (46.1) 132 (39.4) .045
        Overweight 314 (27.1) 92 (27.5)
        Obese 262 (22.6) 99 (29.6)
    Gestational Weight Gainc
        Below recommendation 223 (19.2) 96 (28.7)
        At recommendation 380 (32.8) 97 (29.0) .001
        Above recommendation 556 (48.0) 142 (42.4)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1090 (94.1) 302 (90.2) .013
        Yes 69 (6.0) 33 (9.9)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 134 (11.6) 51 (15.2) .073
        ≥38 1025 (88.4) 284 (84.8)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1135 (97.9) 322 (96.1) .061
        Yes 24 (2.1) 13 (3.9)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 901 (77.7) 242 (72.2) .037
        Yes 258 (22.3) 93 (27.8)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 197 (17.0) 237 (70.8) <.001
        Yes 962 (83.0) 98 (29.3)
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 893 (77.1) 224 (66.9) .001
        Cesarean 266 (23.0) 111 (33.1)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b χ2 test.

c Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

×
Table 3.
Demographic Characteristics and Association Between Method of Delivery and Exclusive Breastfeeding (N=1494)
Characteristic Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Multivariable Adjusted OR (95% CI)
    Age,y
        18-24 1 1
        25-34 1.58 (1.13-2.22)a 1.26 (0.82-1.94)
        >34 1.49 (0.98-2.26) 1.27 (0.74-2.17)
    Marital Status
        Never married 1 1
        Currently married 1.99 (1.35-2.92)b 1.08 (0.66-1.77)
        Other 1.24 (0.65-2.37) 0.82 (0.36-1.84)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1 1
        Non-Hispanic black 0.29 (0.17-0.49)b 0.58 (0.30-1.12)
        Hispanic 0.28 (0.18-0.43)b 0.38 (0.23-0.65)b
        Other 0.39 (0.23-0.66)b 0.40 (0.21-0.75)a
    Education
        High school or less 1 1
        Some college 1.68 (1.22-2.31)b 1.44 (0.97-2.12)
        College graduate 2.44 (1.75-3.41)b 1.62 (1.04-2.48)c
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 1.01 (0.52-1.95) 1.43 (0.65-3.14)
        Normal 1 1
        Overweight 0.84 (0.63-1.14) 0.85 (0.58-1.23)
        Obese 0.65 (0.49-0.88)a 0.75 (0.52-1.10)
    Gestational Weight Gaind
        Below recommendation 0.59 (0.43-0.82)a 0.60 (0.40-0.89)c
        At recommendation 1 1
        Above recommendation 1.00 (0.75-1.34) 1.03 (0.72-1.46)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.58 (0.38-0.89)c 1.06 (0.61-1.82)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 0.73 (0.51-1.03) 0.63 (0.41-0.96)c
        ≥38 1 1
    NICU, ≥3 d
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.52 (0.26-1.04) 0.54 (0.23-1.23)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.75 (0.565-0.98)c 1.55 (0.88-2.73)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 1 1
        Yes 11.81 (8.92-15.64)b 11.03 (8.19-14.84)b
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 1 1
        Cesarean 0.60 (0.46-0.78)b 0.41 (0.24-0.71)a

a P<.01.

b P<.001.

c P<.05.

d Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

Table 3.
Demographic Characteristics and Association Between Method of Delivery and Exclusive Breastfeeding (N=1494)
Characteristic Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Multivariable Adjusted OR (95% CI)
    Age,y
        18-24 1 1
        25-34 1.58 (1.13-2.22)a 1.26 (0.82-1.94)
        >34 1.49 (0.98-2.26) 1.27 (0.74-2.17)
    Marital Status
        Never married 1 1
        Currently married 1.99 (1.35-2.92)b 1.08 (0.66-1.77)
        Other 1.24 (0.65-2.37) 0.82 (0.36-1.84)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1 1
        Non-Hispanic black 0.29 (0.17-0.49)b 0.58 (0.30-1.12)
        Hispanic 0.28 (0.18-0.43)b 0.38 (0.23-0.65)b
        Other 0.39 (0.23-0.66)b 0.40 (0.21-0.75)a
    Education
        High school or less 1 1
        Some college 1.68 (1.22-2.31)b 1.44 (0.97-2.12)
        College graduate 2.44 (1.75-3.41)b 1.62 (1.04-2.48)c
    Body Mass Index
        Underweight 1.01 (0.52-1.95) 1.43 (0.65-3.14)
        Normal 1 1
        Overweight 0.84 (0.63-1.14) 0.85 (0.58-1.23)
        Obese 0.65 (0.49-0.88)a 0.75 (0.52-1.10)
    Gestational Weight Gaind
        Below recommendation 0.59 (0.43-0.82)a 0.60 (0.40-0.89)c
        At recommendation 1 1
        Above recommendation 1.00 (0.75-1.34) 1.03 (0.72-1.46)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.58 (0.38-0.89)c 1.06 (0.61-1.82)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 0.73 (0.51-1.03) 0.63 (0.41-0.96)c
        ≥38 1 1
    NICU, ≥3 d
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.52 (0.26-1.04) 0.54 (0.23-1.23)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1 1
        Yes 0.75 (0.565-0.98)c 1.55 (0.88-2.73)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 1 1
        Yes 11.81 (8.92-15.64)b 11.03 (8.19-14.84)b
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 1 1
        Cesarean 0.60 (0.46-0.78)b 0.41 (0.24-0.71)a

a P<.01.

b P<.001.

c P<.05.

d Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

×
Table 4.
Demographic Characteristics Comparing Respondents in the Final Analytic Sample With Respondents Who Were Excludeda
Characteristic Analytic Sample (n=1494) Incomplete Data (n=1059)b P Valuec
    Age, y
        18-24 202 (13.5) 361 (34.2)
        25-34 1016 (68.0) 570 (54.0) <.001
        >34 276 (18.5) 124 (11.8)
    Marital Status
        Never married 131 (8.8) 242 (27.2)
        Currently married 1299 (86.9) 616 (69.4) <.001
        Other 64 (4.3) 30 (3.4)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1275 (85.3) 797 (80.6)
        Non-Hispanic black 58 (3.9) 60 (6.1) .010
        Hispanic 94 (6.3) 72 (7.3)
        Other 67 (4.9) 60 (6.1)
    Education
        High school or less 257 (17.2) 175 (20.0)
        Some college 634 (42.4) 336 (38.4) .090
        College graduate 603 (40.4) 365 (41.7)
    Body Mass Index
        Normal 61 (4.1) 51 (4.9) .094
        Underweight 666 (44.6) 501 (48.6)
        Overweight 406 (27.2) 259 (25.1)
        Obese 361 (24.2) 219 (21.3)
    Gestational Weight Gaind
        At recommendation 319 (21.4) 151 (15.9) <.001
        Below recommendation 477 (31.9) 258 (27.2)
        Above recommendation 698 (46.7) 538 (56.8)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1392 (93.2) 953 (90.4) .011
        Yes 102 (6.8) 101 (9.6)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 185 (12.4) 132 (12.5) .951
        ≥38 1309 (87.6) 927 (87.5)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1457 (97.5) 1031 (97.4) .791
        Yes 37 (2.5) 28 (2.6)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1143 (76.5) 170 (75.2) .672
        Yes 351 (23.5) 56 (24.8)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 434 (29.1) 247 (25.4) .050
        Yes 1060 (70.9) 726 (74.6)
    Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
        No 335 (22.4) 371 (35.0) <.001
        Yes 1159 (77.6) 688 (65.0)
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 1117 (74.8) 739 (69.8) .005
        Cesarean 377 (25.2) 320 (30.2)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b Some participant responses were missing for age, marital status, race or ethnicity, body mass index, gestational weight gain, prenatal smoking, previous cesarean delivery, and prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed in the first few weeks.

c χ2 test.

d Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

Table 4.
Demographic Characteristics Comparing Respondents in the Final Analytic Sample With Respondents Who Were Excludeda
Characteristic Analytic Sample (n=1494) Incomplete Data (n=1059)b P Valuec
    Age, y
        18-24 202 (13.5) 361 (34.2)
        25-34 1016 (68.0) 570 (54.0) <.001
        >34 276 (18.5) 124 (11.8)
    Marital Status
        Never married 131 (8.8) 242 (27.2)
        Currently married 1299 (86.9) 616 (69.4) <.001
        Other 64 (4.3) 30 (3.4)
    Race or Ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white 1275 (85.3) 797 (80.6)
        Non-Hispanic black 58 (3.9) 60 (6.1) .010
        Hispanic 94 (6.3) 72 (7.3)
        Other 67 (4.9) 60 (6.1)
    Education
        High school or less 257 (17.2) 175 (20.0)
        Some college 634 (42.4) 336 (38.4) .090
        College graduate 603 (40.4) 365 (41.7)
    Body Mass Index
        Normal 61 (4.1) 51 (4.9) .094
        Underweight 666 (44.6) 501 (48.6)
        Overweight 406 (27.2) 259 (25.1)
        Obese 361 (24.2) 219 (21.3)
    Gestational Weight Gaind
        At recommendation 319 (21.4) 151 (15.9) <.001
        Below recommendation 477 (31.9) 258 (27.2)
        Above recommendation 698 (46.7) 538 (56.8)
    Prenatal Smoking
        No 1392 (93.2) 953 (90.4) .011
        Yes 102 (6.8) 101 (9.6)
    Gestational Age, wk
        35-38 185 (12.4) 132 (12.5) .951
        ≥38 1309 (87.6) 927 (87.5)
    NICU, ≤3 d
        No 1457 (97.5) 1031 (97.4) .791
        Yes 37 (2.5) 28 (2.6)
    Previous Cesarean Delivery
        No 1143 (76.5) 170 (75.2) .672
        Yes 351 (23.5) 56 (24.8)
    Prenatal Intention to Exclusively Breastfeed in the First Few Weeks
        No 434 (29.1) 247 (25.4) .050
        Yes 1060 (70.9) 726 (74.6)
    Exclusive Breastfeeding at Hospital Discharge
        No 335 (22.4) 371 (35.0) <.001
        Yes 1159 (77.6) 688 (65.0)
    Method of Delivery
        Vaginal 1117 (74.8) 739 (69.8) .005
        Cesarean 377 (25.2) 320 (30.2)

a Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Some percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

b Some participant responses were missing for age, marital status, race or ethnicity, body mass index, gestational weight gain, prenatal smoking, previous cesarean delivery, and prenatal intention to exclusively breastfeed in the first few weeks.

c χ2 test.

d Calculated based on the Institute of Medicine’s revised guidelines for gestational weight gain.

Abbreviation: NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.

×