Fields H, Millstine D, Agrwal N, Marks L. Is Meat Killing Us?. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2016;116(5):296–300. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.059.
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a Singh et al3 did not report exact total No. of participants.
b Some participants were included in multiple cohorts.
Abbreviations: EU, Europe; US, United States; WA, West Australia.
a Only the article by Abete et al2 evaluated the effects of total meat defined as white processed and unprocessed red meat. The other studies combined red and processed meat at times, but these combinations are not reflected in this table.
b Singh et al3 reported a statistically significant increase in cardiovascular disease mortality among men but not among women.
Abbreviation: NA, not applicable.
a The study by Key et al4 was a collaborative analysis of 5 large cohorts. It separated cancer into categories of cancer of the stomach, colon, lung, female breast, and prostate without combining these results. The results were fairly heterogenous, so none of the cancers had a consistent statistically significant decrease in mortality in all 5 cohorts.
Clinical Question: Does meat consumption affect mortality?
Evidence: All-cause mortality is higher for increased daily consumption of red meat, especially processed meat. However, the compiled evidence does not link other meat products to all-cause mortality.
Recommendation: Physicians should encourage patients to limit animal products when possible, and substitute red meat and processed red meat with plant-based foods. Patients may supplement a plant-based diet with moderate amounts of fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy if desired.
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