Christopher Leibold, Jay H. Shubrook, Masato Nakazawa, David Drozek. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program in Reducing Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Appalachian Population. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2016;116(2):84–91. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.020.
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Context: In 11 counties in Appalachian Ohio, the self-reported prevalence of diabetes mellitus (11.3%) is higher than the state (7.8%) or national (7.2%) average. Direct medical costs for diabetes in the United States are estimated at $176 billion annually. Indirect costs from disability, work loss, and premature death add up to another $69 billion.
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a sample of Appalachian participants with elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels or a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: In a retrospective study, data from 6 CHIP cohorts conducted in Appalachian Ohio from 2011 to 2012 were combined and analyzed for short-term changes in CVD risk factors from baseline. This study focused on a subsample of the overall CHIP, whose participants had elevated FBG levels or T2DM. Statistical analysis was completed by calculating means and SDs and using paired t tests to compare differences in variables.
Results: After the CHIP intervention, 110 participants with baseline elevated FBG levels showed notable reductions in FBG levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure (all P values <.001). Likewise, participants in the subsample with T2DM experienced reductions in all CVD risk factors (all P values <.05).
Conclusion: The CHIP lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing CVD risk factors in this Appalachian population with elevated FBG levels or with T2DM.
a Age range, 25-80 y
b Age range, 24-81 y
Abbreviation: CHIP, Complete Health Improvement Program.
a Values in parentheses indicate absolute mean changes from baseline. Data were not available for all participants.
Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CHIP, Complete Health Improvement Program; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides.
a Data were not available for all participants.
Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CHIP, Complete Health Improvement Program; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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