Mueller L, Ciervo C. Smoking in women. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1998;98(12_suppl):7S. doi: .
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Smoking has numerous increased health risks for women, including the risks for cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric and duodenal ulcers, reduced fertility, ovulatory dysfunction, ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, sudden infant death, and earlier menopause. Such health risks, smoking cessation therapy, and unique obstacles to smoking cessation in women are the focus of this article.
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