Greenman PE, McPartland JM. Cranial findings and iatrogenesis from craniosacral manipulation in patients with traumatic brain syndrome.. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1995;95(3):182. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.19188.8.131.52.
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Craniosacral findings were recorded for all patients with traumatic brain injury entering an outpatient rehabilitation program between 1978 and 1992. The average cranial rhythmic impulse was low in all 55 patients (average, 7.2 c/min). At least one cranial strain pattern was exhibited by 95%, and 87% had one or more bony motion restrictions. Sacral findings were similar to those in patients with low back pain. Although craniosacral manipulation has been found empirically useful in patients with traumatic brain injury, three cases of iatrogenesis occurred. The incidence rate is low (5%), but the practitioner must be prepared to deal with the possibility of adverse reactions.
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