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AOA Communication  |   April 2012
Osteopathic Graduate Medical Education 2012
Author Notes
  • From the Department of Education at the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) in Chicago, Illinois 
  • Address correspondence to Andrea DeRosier, MUPP, Director, AOA Division of Postdoctoral Training, Department of Education, 142 E Ontario St, Chicago, IL 60611-2864. E-mail: aderosier@osteopathic.org  
  •    Editor's Note: This JAOA theme issue on osteopathic medical education includes annual updates from the American Osteopathic Association's departments of accreditation and education. Last year's article on osteopathic graduate medical education can be accessed online at http://www.jaoa.org/content/111/4/234.full.
     
Article Information
AOA Communication   |   April 2012
Osteopathic Graduate Medical Education 2012
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, April 2012, Vol. 112, 196-203. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2012.112.4.196
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, April 2012, Vol. 112, 196-203. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2012.112.4.196
Abstract

The authors report on the status of osteopathic graduate medical education training for the 2010-2011 academic year. Data are presented on approved programs and trainee positions, including distribution by state and by specialty. The authors also examine other trends in postdoctoral training including programs dually accredited by the American Osteopathic Association and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

The annual report on osteopathic graduate medical education (OGME) is based primarily on annual data provided through the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Intern/Resident Registration Program (ie, the AOA Match) and the AOA Trainee Information, Verification, and Registration Audit reporting system. Data in the present article are current as of May 31, 2011, and are reported primarily for the 2010-2011 academic year. Information on AOA-approved postdoctoral training programs and positions is drawn from the AOA database, and program information data are current as of May 31, 2011, except where otherwise noted. 
OGME Programs and Positions
The AOA Program and Trainee Review Council (PTRC) reviews and approves all OGME programs and positions. For the 2010-2011 academic year, 9110 positions were approved in 827 residency programs (Table 1). This number of AOA-approved positions is an increase from the 2009-2010 academic year, at which time 8501 positions in 792 residency programs were approved.1 The number of internship programs and approved internship positions continues to decline because of the internship restructuring program that began in 2008. Beginning July 1, 2008, the first year of training in a residency was accepted in lieu of the internship year and, for most specialties, the internship year was no longer needed for completion of a residency.1-3 Internship positions for the 2010-2011 academic year totaled 1284 in 134 programs compared with 1318 positions in 142 programs for the 2009-2010 academic year. Internship and residency positions have increased by 575, or 5.9%, since the 2009-2010 academic year. 
Table 1.
No. of AOA-Approved Residency and Internship Programs and Trainees Filling Available Positions as Reported by State, 2010-2011 Academic Yeara
Internship Programs Residency Programs Total
State Programs Positions Trainees Programs Positions Trainees Programs Positions Trainees
Alabama 0 0 0 1 18 0 1 18 0
Alaska 0 0 0 1 9 6 1 9 6
Arizona 0 0 0 8 82 45 8 82 45
Arkansas 0 0 0 2 15 4 2 15 4
California 6 69 34 25 317 205 31 386 239
Colorado 0 0 0 2 39 10 2 39 10
Connecticut 1 12 0 1 11 8 2 23 8
Delaware 1 15 10 1 24 9 2 39 19
Florida 9 122 65 58 734 378 67 856 443
Georgia 1 4 2 4 47 15 5 51 17
Illinois 4 36 30 42 443 286 46 479 316
Indiana 1 3 1 3 23 15 4 26 16
Iowa 0 0 0 4 40 30 4 40 30
Kansas 0 0 0 1 13 12 1 13 12
Kentucky 2 9 6 6 51 18 8 60 24
Maine 0 0 0 6 72 46 6 72 46
Massachusetts 1 4 4 2 18 13 3 22 17
Michigan 20 202 88 191 1947 1351 211 2149 1439
Minnesota 0 0 0 2 14 13 2 14 13
Mississippi 0 0 0 3 30 13 3 30 13
Missouri 3 15 11 21 166 120 24 181 131
Nevada 1 15 12 7 95 62 8 110 74
New Jersey 6 72 28 56 628 366 62 700 394
New York 18 218 107 69 918 554 87 1136 661
North Carolina 2 17 1 4 52 8 6 69 9
Ohio 10 94 29 100 898 632 110 992 661
Oklahoma 2 16 5 28 291 227 30 307 232
Oregon 1 12 6 8 76 19 9 88 25
Pennsylvania 31 254 119 99 1213 839 130 1467 958
Rhode Island 0 0 0 4 50 28 4 50 28
South Carolina 0 0 0 1 14 13 1 14 13
Tennessee 0 0 0 3 33 17 3 33 17
Texas 4 32 7 24 209 120 28 241 127
Virginia 3 26 12 14 218 96 17 244 108
Washington 0 0 0 3 17 8 3 17 8
West Virginia 7 37 14 20 223 100 27 260 114
Wisconsin 0 0 0 2 50 38 2 50 38
Wyoming 0 0 0 1 12 7 1 12 7
Total 134 1284 591 827 9110 5731 961 10,394 6322
  a Data shown represent positions approved by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Program and Trainee Review Council for the academic year indicated. Data are current as of May 31, 2011. No internship or residency positions are currently approved by the AOA in the District of Columbia or in the following states: Hawaii, Idaho, Louisiana, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Vermont.
  Source: Training Programs by State: Year-End Reports, Division of Postdoctoral Training, AOA, Chicago, Illinois.
Table 1.
No. of AOA-Approved Residency and Internship Programs and Trainees Filling Available Positions as Reported by State, 2010-2011 Academic Yeara
Internship Programs Residency Programs Total
State Programs Positions Trainees Programs Positions Trainees Programs Positions Trainees
Alabama 0 0 0 1 18 0 1 18 0
Alaska 0 0 0 1 9 6 1 9 6
Arizona 0 0 0 8 82 45 8 82 45
Arkansas 0 0 0 2 15 4 2 15 4
California 6 69 34 25 317 205 31 386 239
Colorado 0 0 0 2 39 10 2 39 10
Connecticut 1 12 0 1 11 8 2 23 8
Delaware 1 15 10 1 24 9 2 39 19
Florida 9 122 65 58 734 378 67 856 443
Georgia 1 4 2 4 47 15 5 51 17
Illinois 4 36 30 42 443 286 46 479 316
Indiana 1 3 1 3 23 15 4 26 16
Iowa 0 0 0 4 40 30 4 40 30
Kansas 0 0 0 1 13 12 1 13 12
Kentucky 2 9 6 6 51 18 8 60 24
Maine 0 0 0 6 72 46 6 72 46
Massachusetts 1 4 4 2 18 13 3 22 17
Michigan 20 202 88 191 1947 1351 211 2149 1439
Minnesota 0 0 0 2 14 13 2 14 13
Mississippi 0 0 0 3 30 13 3 30 13
Missouri 3 15 11 21 166 120 24 181 131
Nevada 1 15 12 7 95 62 8 110 74
New Jersey 6 72 28 56 628 366 62 700 394
New York 18 218 107 69 918 554 87 1136 661
North Carolina 2 17 1 4 52 8 6 69 9
Ohio 10 94 29 100 898 632 110 992 661
Oklahoma 2 16 5 28 291 227 30 307 232
Oregon 1 12 6 8 76 19 9 88 25
Pennsylvania 31 254 119 99 1213 839 130 1467 958
Rhode Island 0 0 0 4 50 28 4 50 28
South Carolina 0 0 0 1 14 13 1 14 13
Tennessee 0 0 0 3 33 17 3 33 17
Texas 4 32 7 24 209 120 28 241 127
Virginia 3 26 12 14 218 96 17 244 108
Washington 0 0 0 3 17 8 3 17 8
West Virginia 7 37 14 20 223 100 27 260 114
Wisconsin 0 0 0 2 50 38 2 50 38
Wyoming 0 0 0 1 12 7 1 12 7
Total 134 1284 591 827 9110 5731 961 10,394 6322
  a Data shown represent positions approved by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Program and Trainee Review Council for the academic year indicated. Data are current as of May 31, 2011. No internship or residency positions are currently approved by the AOA in the District of Columbia or in the following states: Hawaii, Idaho, Louisiana, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Vermont.
  Source: Training Programs by State: Year-End Reports, Division of Postdoctoral Training, AOA, Chicago, Illinois.
×
The number of trainees in OGME programs continues to grow (Figure 1). In the 2010-2011 academic year, 6322 DOs trained in AOA-approved programs, an increase of 517 trainees, or 8.9%, from the previous academic year.1 
Figure 1.
Trends of osteopathic physician (ie, DO) enrollment in osteopathic and allopathic postdoctoral training programs.4-6 Data may change and should be considered incomplete until finalized in the 2013 osteopathic medical education issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Data for academic years 1999-2000 through 2009-2010 were previously published in the JAOA.7 aTotal college of osteopathic medicine (COM) graduates do not include previous years' graduates. bTotal DOs in American Osteopathic Association (AOA) internships include trainees who matched to osteopathic internship positions during both the Match and post-Match scramble. cRestructuring of the AOA internship, effective July 1, 2008. Abbreviation: ACGME, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.
Figure 1.
Trends of osteopathic physician (ie, DO) enrollment in osteopathic and allopathic postdoctoral training programs.4-6 Data may change and should be considered incomplete until finalized in the 2013 osteopathic medical education issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Data for academic years 1999-2000 through 2009-2010 were previously published in the JAOA.7 aTotal college of osteopathic medicine (COM) graduates do not include previous years' graduates. bTotal DOs in American Osteopathic Association (AOA) internships include trainees who matched to osteopathic internship positions during both the Match and post-Match scramble. cRestructuring of the AOA internship, effective July 1, 2008. Abbreviation: ACGME, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.
Table 2 identifies the number of residency programs, approved positions, and trainees by specialty for the past 3 academic years. On the basis of feedback we have received from hospital and program directors, primary care specialties directly support the needs of the hospitals and therefore have the greatest number of slots. Specifically, family practice and internal medicine continue to show strong growth in terms of the number of programs, positions, and trainees. Internal medicine showed the most growth this past year with an additional 6 programs, 196 positions, and 139 trainees. Family practice grew by 5 programs, 162 positions, and 134 trainees. 
Table 2.
No. of AOA-Approved Residency Programs, Positions, and Residents as Reported by Academic Year and Specialty
2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011
Specialty Programs Positions Residents Programs Positions Residents Programs Positions Residents
Anesthesiology 12 107 92 12 112 96 12 118 107
Anesthesiology and pain management 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 2
Pediatric anesthesiology 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Dermatology 20 123 93 22 130 94 23 137 106
MOHS micrographic surgery 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Diagnostic Radiology 14 133 120 15 156 114 15 161 129
Pediatric radiology 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Radiology (vascular interventional) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emergency Medicine 43 979 780 44 1007 810 45 1042 839
Emergency medical service 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
Family Practice 184 2341 1056 187 2391 1213 192 2553 1347
Geriatrics (family practice) 6 27 2 8 33 2 10 37 2
Internal Medicine 88 1320 672 96 1476 796 102 1672 935
Allergy and immunology 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0
Cardiac electrophysiology 1 3 0 2 5 1 2 5 0
Cardiology 23 148 84 23 148 82 24 156 90
Cardiology (interventional) 10 25 9 11 28 5 12 29 11
Critical care medicine 5 13 4 7 17 7 8 20 8
Endocrinology 3 6 4 3 6 3 3 6 3
Gastroenterology 12 51 24 13 60 32 13 63 39
Geriatrics (internal medicine) 3 11 0 4 13 0 5 15 2
Hematology and oncology 4 11 5 5 14 9 5 14 11
Infectious diseases 2 8 2 2 8 2 2 8 2
Nephrology 7 20 8 7 20 10 7 20 8
Oncology 3 9 1 4 12 0 4 12 0
Pulmonary (critical care) 7 22 11 7 24 14 8 31 17
Pulmonary medicine 4 11 2 4 11 2 4 11 3
Rheumatology 3 8 7 4 10 7 4 12 9
Neurology 7 61 31 7 74 47 7 74 54
NMM and OMM 8 38 17 8 40 16 7 38 17
NMM Plus 1 19 62 14 17 55 24 20 63 20
Obstetrics and Gynecology 31 370 247 30 380 265 29 363 295
Gynecologic oncology 3 9 7 3 9 6 3 9 8
Maternal and fetal medicine 2 7 6 3 10 5 3 10 4
Reproductive endocrinology 1 3 2 3 9 2 4 12 1
Ophthalmology 12 57 44 12 58 44 12 58 46
Orthopedic Surgery 31 465 393 33 497 407 35 520 419
Hand surgery 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Musculoskeletal oncology 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Orthopedic spine surgery 2 3 0 2 3 0 1 1 0
Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery 19 132 103 19 134 114 20 143 120
Otolaryngic allergy 2 6 1 2 6 3 3 9 3
Pathology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Forensic pathology 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
Pediatrics 17 225 130 17 229 140 18 250 153
Pediatric allergy and immunology 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine 3 28 23 3 29 26 4 38 23
Preventive Medicine and Public Health 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 0
Preventive Medicine (Occupational and Environmental) 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 1
Proctology 2 5 2 2 5 3 2 5 2
Psychiatry 9 95 32 11 127 49 13 151 65
Child psychiatry 2 8 4 2 8 1 3 12 3
Geriatric psychiatry 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 1
Surgery (General) 41 536 435 42 571 455 43 620 481
Cardiothoracic surgery 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 0
General vascular surgery 9 20 4 7 15 3 8 17 6
Neurologic surgery 11 97 81 11 99 86 11 103 83
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 6 21 16 7 24 16 7 24 16
Urologic surgery 11 123 55 9 82 66 10 98 68
Combined
Emergency medicine and family medicine 5 59 32 5 64 37 4 60 38
Emergency medicine and internal medicine 12 130 92 12 133 80 11 129 82
Integrated family medicine/NMM 7 49 21 6 40 18 8 64 18
Pediatrics and internal medicine 2 18 10 2 18 10 1 10 10
Conjointa
Hospice and palliative care 2 4 0 4 9 1 5 10 2
Pediatric emergency medicine NA NA NA 1 6 0 1 6 0
Sleep medicine 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 0
Sports medicine 16 47 12 17 47 16 17 47 19
Undersea and hyperbaric medicine NA NA NA 1 2 0 1 2 0
Total 762 8094 4794 792 8501 5247 827 9110 5731
  a Hospice and palliative care, pediatric emergency medicine, sleep medicine, sports medicine, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine are fellowships governed by Conjoint Standards by 2 or more specialties.
  Abbreviations: AOA, American Osteopathic Association; NMM, neuromusculoskeletal medicine; OMM, osteopathic manipulative medicine.
  Sources: AOA Intern/Resident Contracts received by the division of postdoctoral training for the academic years shown (taken annually on May 31); and AOA's Trainee Information, Verification and Registration Audit system, or TIVRA, academic years 2010-2011. Data for the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 academic years have been reported previously in JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.1,7
Table 2.
No. of AOA-Approved Residency Programs, Positions, and Residents as Reported by Academic Year and Specialty
2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011
Specialty Programs Positions Residents Programs Positions Residents Programs Positions Residents
Anesthesiology 12 107 92 12 112 96 12 118 107
Anesthesiology and pain management 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 2
Pediatric anesthesiology 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Dermatology 20 123 93 22 130 94 23 137 106
MOHS micrographic surgery 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Diagnostic Radiology 14 133 120 15 156 114 15 161 129
Pediatric radiology 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Radiology (vascular interventional) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emergency Medicine 43 979 780 44 1007 810 45 1042 839
Emergency medical service 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
Family Practice 184 2341 1056 187 2391 1213 192 2553 1347
Geriatrics (family practice) 6 27 2 8 33 2 10 37 2
Internal Medicine 88 1320 672 96 1476 796 102 1672 935
Allergy and immunology 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0
Cardiac electrophysiology 1 3 0 2 5 1 2 5 0
Cardiology 23 148 84 23 148 82 24 156 90
Cardiology (interventional) 10 25 9 11 28 5 12 29 11
Critical care medicine 5 13 4 7 17 7 8 20 8
Endocrinology 3 6 4 3 6 3 3 6 3
Gastroenterology 12 51 24 13 60 32 13 63 39
Geriatrics (internal medicine) 3 11 0 4 13 0 5 15 2
Hematology and oncology 4 11 5 5 14 9 5 14 11
Infectious diseases 2 8 2 2 8 2 2 8 2
Nephrology 7 20 8 7 20 10 7 20 8
Oncology 3 9 1 4 12 0 4 12 0
Pulmonary (critical care) 7 22 11 7 24 14 8 31 17
Pulmonary medicine 4 11 2 4 11 2 4 11 3
Rheumatology 3 8 7 4 10 7 4 12 9
Neurology 7 61 31 7 74 47 7 74 54
NMM and OMM 8 38 17 8 40 16 7 38 17
NMM Plus 1 19 62 14 17 55 24 20 63 20
Obstetrics and Gynecology 31 370 247 30 380 265 29 363 295
Gynecologic oncology 3 9 7 3 9 6 3 9 8
Maternal and fetal medicine 2 7 6 3 10 5 3 10 4
Reproductive endocrinology 1 3 2 3 9 2 4 12 1
Ophthalmology 12 57 44 12 58 44 12 58 46
Orthopedic Surgery 31 465 393 33 497 407 35 520 419
Hand surgery 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Musculoskeletal oncology 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Orthopedic spine surgery 2 3 0 2 3 0 1 1 0
Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery 19 132 103 19 134 114 20 143 120
Otolaryngic allergy 2 6 1 2 6 3 3 9 3
Pathology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Forensic pathology 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
Pediatrics 17 225 130 17 229 140 18 250 153
Pediatric allergy and immunology 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine 3 28 23 3 29 26 4 38 23
Preventive Medicine and Public Health 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 0
Preventive Medicine (Occupational and Environmental) 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 1
Proctology 2 5 2 2 5 3 2 5 2
Psychiatry 9 95 32 11 127 49 13 151 65
Child psychiatry 2 8 4 2 8 1 3 12 3
Geriatric psychiatry 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 1
Surgery (General) 41 536 435 42 571 455 43 620 481
Cardiothoracic surgery 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 0
General vascular surgery 9 20 4 7 15 3 8 17 6
Neurologic surgery 11 97 81 11 99 86 11 103 83
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 6 21 16 7 24 16 7 24 16
Urologic surgery 11 123 55 9 82 66 10 98 68
Combined
Emergency medicine and family medicine 5 59 32 5 64 37 4 60 38
Emergency medicine and internal medicine 12 130 92 12 133 80 11 129 82
Integrated family medicine/NMM 7 49 21 6 40 18 8 64 18
Pediatrics and internal medicine 2 18 10 2 18 10 1 10 10
Conjointa
Hospice and palliative care 2 4 0 4 9 1 5 10 2
Pediatric emergency medicine NA NA NA 1 6 0 1 6 0
Sleep medicine 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 0
Sports medicine 16 47 12 17 47 16 17 47 19
Undersea and hyperbaric medicine NA NA NA 1 2 0 1 2 0
Total 762 8094 4794 792 8501 5247 827 9110 5731
  a Hospice and palliative care, pediatric emergency medicine, sleep medicine, sports medicine, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine are fellowships governed by Conjoint Standards by 2 or more specialties.
  Abbreviations: AOA, American Osteopathic Association; NMM, neuromusculoskeletal medicine; OMM, osteopathic manipulative medicine.
  Sources: AOA Intern/Resident Contracts received by the division of postdoctoral training for the academic years shown (taken annually on May 31); and AOA's Trainee Information, Verification and Registration Audit system, or TIVRA, academic years 2010-2011. Data for the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 academic years have been reported previously in JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.1,7
×
The percentage of filled positions in osteopathic residency programs continues to increase. In the 2010-2011 academic year, there were 827 AOA-approved residency programs with 9110 approved positions, of which 5731 were filled, for a fill rate of 63%—an increase over the 62% fill rate for 2009-2010 and 59% fill rate for 2008-2009.2,3,8,6 
Table 3 notes AOA-approved residency programs and approved and filled positions. From 2009-2010 to 2010-2011 there was a net growth of 35 programs, 609 positions, and 484 trainees. 
Table 3.
Net Growth From the 2009-2010 to 2010-2011 Academic Years of AOA-Approved Residency Programs, Positions, and Residents as Reported by Specialty
No.
Specialty Programs Positions Residents
Anesthesiology 0 6 11
Anesthesiology and pain management 0 0 0
Pediatric anesthesiology 0 0 0
Dermatology 1 7 12
MOHS micrographic surgery 0 0 -1
Diagnostic Radiology 0 5 15
Pediatric radiology 0 0 0
Radiology (vascular interventional) 0 0 0
Emergency Medicine 1 35 29
Emergency medical service 0 0 1
Family Practice 5 162 134
Geriatrics (family practice) 2 4 0
Internal Medicine 6 196 139
Allergy and immunology 1 4 0
Cardiac electrophysiology 0 0 -1
Cardiology 1 8 8
Cardiology (interventional) 1 1 6
Critical care medicine 1 3 1
Endocrinology 0 0 0
Gastroenterology 0 3 7
Geriatrics (internal medicine) 1 2 2
Hematology and oncology 0 0 2
Infectious diseases 0 0 0
Nephrology 0 0 -2
Oncology 0 0 0
Pulmonary (critical care) 1 7 3
Pulmonary medicine 0 0 1
Rheumatology 0 2 2
Neurology 0 0 7
NMM and OMM -1 -2 1
NMM plus 1 3 8 -4
Obstetrics and Gynecology -1 -17 30
Gynecologic oncology 0 0 2
Maternal and fetal medicine 0 0 -1
Reproductive endocrinology 1 3 -1
Ophthalmology 0 0 2
Orthopedic Surgery 2 23 12
Hand surgery 0 0 0
Musculoskeletal oncology 1 1 0
Orthopedic spine surgery -1 -2 0
Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery 1 9 6
Otolaryngic allergy 1 3 0
Pathology 0 0 0
Forensic pathology 0 0 0
Pediatrics 1 21 13
Pediatric allergy and immunology 0 0 0
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine 1 9 -3
Preventive Medicine and Public Health 0 0 -1
Preventive medicine (occupational and environmental) 0 0 0
Proctology 0 0 -1
Psychiatry 2 24 16
Child psychiatry 1 4 2
Geriatric psychiatry 0 0 1
Surgery (General) 1 49 26
Cardiothoracic surgery 0 0 0
General vascular surgery 1 2 3
Neurological surgery 0 4 -3
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 0 0 0
Urologic surgery 1 16 2
Combined
Emergency medicine and family medicine -1 -4 1
Emergency medicine and internal medicine -1 -4 2
Integrated family medicine/NMM 2 24 0
Pediatrics and internal medicine -1 -8 0
Conjointa
Hospice and palliative care 1 1 1
Pediatric emergency medicine 0 0 0
Sleep medicine 0 0 -1
Sports medicine 0 0 3
Undersea and hyperbaric medicine 0 0 0
Total 35 609 484
  a Hospice and palliative care, pediatric emergency medicine, sleep medicine, sports medicine, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine are fellowships governed by Conjoint Standards by 2 or more specialties.
  Abbreviations: AOA, American Osteopathic Association; NMM, neuromusculoskeletal medicine; OMM, osteopathic manipulative medicine.
  Sources: AOA Intern/Resident Contracts received by the division of postdoctoral training for the academic years shown (taken annually on May 31); and AOA's Trainee Information, Verification and Registration Audit system, or TIVRA, academic years 2010-2011.
Table 3.
Net Growth From the 2009-2010 to 2010-2011 Academic Years of AOA-Approved Residency Programs, Positions, and Residents as Reported by Specialty
No.
Specialty Programs Positions Residents
Anesthesiology 0 6 11
Anesthesiology and pain management 0 0 0
Pediatric anesthesiology 0 0 0
Dermatology 1 7 12
MOHS micrographic surgery 0 0 -1
Diagnostic Radiology 0 5 15
Pediatric radiology 0 0 0
Radiology (vascular interventional) 0 0 0
Emergency Medicine 1 35 29
Emergency medical service 0 0 1
Family Practice 5 162 134
Geriatrics (family practice) 2 4 0
Internal Medicine 6 196 139
Allergy and immunology 1 4 0
Cardiac electrophysiology 0 0 -1
Cardiology 1 8 8
Cardiology (interventional) 1 1 6
Critical care medicine 1 3 1
Endocrinology 0 0 0
Gastroenterology 0 3 7
Geriatrics (internal medicine) 1 2 2
Hematology and oncology 0 0 2
Infectious diseases 0 0 0
Nephrology 0 0 -2
Oncology 0 0 0
Pulmonary (critical care) 1 7 3
Pulmonary medicine 0 0 1
Rheumatology 0 2 2
Neurology 0 0 7
NMM and OMM -1 -2 1
NMM plus 1 3 8 -4
Obstetrics and Gynecology -1 -17 30
Gynecologic oncology 0 0 2
Maternal and fetal medicine 0 0 -1
Reproductive endocrinology 1 3 -1
Ophthalmology 0 0 2
Orthopedic Surgery 2 23 12
Hand surgery 0 0 0
Musculoskeletal oncology 1 1 0
Orthopedic spine surgery -1 -2 0
Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery 1 9 6
Otolaryngic allergy 1 3 0
Pathology 0 0 0
Forensic pathology 0 0 0
Pediatrics 1 21 13
Pediatric allergy and immunology 0 0 0
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine 1 9 -3
Preventive Medicine and Public Health 0 0 -1
Preventive medicine (occupational and environmental) 0 0 0
Proctology 0 0 -1
Psychiatry 2 24 16
Child psychiatry 1 4 2
Geriatric psychiatry 0 0 1
Surgery (General) 1 49 26
Cardiothoracic surgery 0 0 0
General vascular surgery 1 2 3
Neurological surgery 0 4 -3
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 0 0 0
Urologic surgery 1 16 2
Combined
Emergency medicine and family medicine -1 -4 1
Emergency medicine and internal medicine -1 -4 2
Integrated family medicine/NMM 2 24 0
Pediatrics and internal medicine -1 -8 0
Conjointa
Hospice and palliative care 1 1 1
Pediatric emergency medicine 0 0 0
Sleep medicine 0 0 -1
Sports medicine 0 0 3
Undersea and hyperbaric medicine 0 0 0
Total 35 609 484
  a Hospice and palliative care, pediatric emergency medicine, sleep medicine, sports medicine, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine are fellowships governed by Conjoint Standards by 2 or more specialties.
  Abbreviations: AOA, American Osteopathic Association; NMM, neuromusculoskeletal medicine; OMM, osteopathic manipulative medicine.
  Sources: AOA Intern/Resident Contracts received by the division of postdoctoral training for the academic years shown (taken annually on May 31); and AOA's Trainee Information, Verification and Registration Audit system, or TIVRA, academic years 2010-2011.
×
Primary care continues to be a popular choice among trainees. Family practice and internal medicine trainees account for 23.5% and 16.3% of all osteopathic residents, respectively. 
Other Trends in Postdoctoral Training Programs
Dual Programs
Most dually accredited training programs are programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) that carved out slots specifically for osteopathic trainees. Programs accredited by the ACGME that become AOA approved can maximize funding from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services by filling training positions with osteopathic physicians.9 Osteopathic trainees who complete a residency in a dual program are registered as completing both AOA and ACGME training programs and are eligible to become board certified by the AOA, the American Board of Medical Specialties, or both. As of May 31, 2011, a total of 2108 approved positions in 171 residency programs were dually accredited by the AOA and the ACGME.7,9 
Geographic Distribution
Figure 2 is a map that depicts the geographic concentration of approved OGME positions. Programs approved by the AOA are located in 38 of the 50 states. Approximately 55% of all AOA-approved training positions are located in the following 4 states: Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Florida had the most growth in 2010-2011 with an increase of 10 programs and 196 approved positions. Also of note are increases in New York, with an additional 79 positions; Michigan, with an additional 58 positions; and New Jersey, with an additional 48 positions. Internship and residency data by state for the 2010-2011 academic year are also provided in Table 1. 
Figure 2.
Total approved internship and residency positions by state.
Figure 2.
Total approved internship and residency positions by state.
OGME Data Analysis
Data reports continue to show modest but steady increases in available OGME positions and trainees in AOA-approved slots. However, the percentage of growth has not kept up with the increasing number of graduating DOs each year. This insufficient growth has resulted in a decline of market share of DOs training in AOA-approved programs. Strategies to increase the number of training positions for graduating DOs have clearly become a new priority for the osteopathic medical profession. It is likely that DO students are looking for more training options in the AOA match, particularly in specialties and locations of interest, while efforts to increase primary care positions remain a priority of the government.10 
Conclusion
Although postdoctoral training positions have increased, the rate of increase has not kept up with the rate of students graduating from DO schools. Strategies to increase the number of residency slots for DO students continue to be an important priority for the osteopathic community. 
   Financial Disclosures: None reported.
 
References
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Burkhart DN. Match statistics. Presented at: AOA Council on Postdoctoral Training. July 22-23 , 2011; Chicago, IL.
American Osteopathic Association. The Basic Documents for Postdoctoral Training. Chicago, IL: American Osteopathic Association; 2011. http://www.osteopathic.org/inside-aoa/accreditation/postdoctoral-training-approval/postdoctoral-training-standards/Documents/aoa-basic-document-for-pos|tdoctoral-training.pdf. Accessed December 27, 2011.
Brotherton SE, Etzel SI. Graduate medical education, 2010-2011. JAMA. 2011;306(9):1015-1030. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/306/9/1015.full. Accessed March 14, 2012.
Freeman E, Duffy T, Lischka TA. Osteopathic graduate medical education 2010. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2010;110(3):150-159. http://www.jaoa.org/content/110/3/150.full. Accessed January 27, 2012.
Burkhart DN, Lischka TA. Dual and parallel postdoctoral training programs: implications for the osteopathic medical profession. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2009;109(3):146-153. http://www.jaoa.org/content/109/3/146.full. Accessed March 12, 2010.
Burkhart DN, Lischka TA. Dual and parallel postdoctoral training programs: implications for the osteopathic medical profession. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2011;111(4):247-256. http://www.jaoa.org/content/111/4/247.full. Accessed March 6, 2012.
Council on Graduate Medical Education. Twentieth Report: Advancing Primary Care. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; December 2010. http://www.hrsa.gov/advisorycommittees/bhpradvisory/cogme/reports/twentiethreport.pdf. Accessed March 6, 2012.
Figure 1.
Trends of osteopathic physician (ie, DO) enrollment in osteopathic and allopathic postdoctoral training programs.4-6 Data may change and should be considered incomplete until finalized in the 2013 osteopathic medical education issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Data for academic years 1999-2000 through 2009-2010 were previously published in the JAOA.7 aTotal college of osteopathic medicine (COM) graduates do not include previous years' graduates. bTotal DOs in American Osteopathic Association (AOA) internships include trainees who matched to osteopathic internship positions during both the Match and post-Match scramble. cRestructuring of the AOA internship, effective July 1, 2008. Abbreviation: ACGME, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.
Figure 1.
Trends of osteopathic physician (ie, DO) enrollment in osteopathic and allopathic postdoctoral training programs.4-6 Data may change and should be considered incomplete until finalized in the 2013 osteopathic medical education issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Data for academic years 1999-2000 through 2009-2010 were previously published in the JAOA.7 aTotal college of osteopathic medicine (COM) graduates do not include previous years' graduates. bTotal DOs in American Osteopathic Association (AOA) internships include trainees who matched to osteopathic internship positions during both the Match and post-Match scramble. cRestructuring of the AOA internship, effective July 1, 2008. Abbreviation: ACGME, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.
Figure 2.
Total approved internship and residency positions by state.
Figure 2.
Total approved internship and residency positions by state.
Table 1.
No. of AOA-Approved Residency and Internship Programs and Trainees Filling Available Positions as Reported by State, 2010-2011 Academic Yeara
Internship Programs Residency Programs Total
State Programs Positions Trainees Programs Positions Trainees Programs Positions Trainees
Alabama 0 0 0 1 18 0 1 18 0
Alaska 0 0 0 1 9 6 1 9 6
Arizona 0 0 0 8 82 45 8 82 45
Arkansas 0 0 0 2 15 4 2 15 4
California 6 69 34 25 317 205 31 386 239
Colorado 0 0 0 2 39 10 2 39 10
Connecticut 1 12 0 1 11 8 2 23 8
Delaware 1 15 10 1 24 9 2 39 19
Florida 9 122 65 58 734 378 67 856 443
Georgia 1 4 2 4 47 15 5 51 17
Illinois 4 36 30 42 443 286 46 479 316
Indiana 1 3 1 3 23 15 4 26 16
Iowa 0 0 0 4 40 30 4 40 30
Kansas 0 0 0 1 13 12 1 13 12
Kentucky 2 9 6 6 51 18 8 60 24
Maine 0 0 0 6 72 46 6 72 46
Massachusetts 1 4 4 2 18 13 3 22 17
Michigan 20 202 88 191 1947 1351 211 2149 1439
Minnesota 0 0 0 2 14 13 2 14 13
Mississippi 0 0 0 3 30 13 3 30 13
Missouri 3 15 11 21 166 120 24 181 131
Nevada 1 15 12 7 95 62 8 110 74
New Jersey 6 72 28 56 628 366 62 700 394
New York 18 218 107 69 918 554 87 1136 661
North Carolina 2 17 1 4 52 8 6 69 9
Ohio 10 94 29 100 898 632 110 992 661
Oklahoma 2 16 5 28 291 227 30 307 232
Oregon 1 12 6 8 76 19 9 88 25
Pennsylvania 31 254 119 99 1213 839 130 1467 958
Rhode Island 0 0 0 4 50 28 4 50 28
South Carolina 0 0 0 1 14 13 1 14 13
Tennessee 0 0 0 3 33 17 3 33 17
Texas 4 32 7 24 209 120 28 241 127
Virginia 3 26 12 14 218 96 17 244 108
Washington 0 0 0 3 17 8 3 17 8
West Virginia 7 37 14 20 223 100 27 260 114
Wisconsin 0 0 0 2 50 38 2 50 38
Wyoming 0 0 0 1 12 7 1 12 7
Total 134 1284 591 827 9110 5731 961 10,394 6322
  a Data shown represent positions approved by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Program and Trainee Review Council for the academic year indicated. Data are current as of May 31, 2011. No internship or residency positions are currently approved by the AOA in the District of Columbia or in the following states: Hawaii, Idaho, Louisiana, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Vermont.
  Source: Training Programs by State: Year-End Reports, Division of Postdoctoral Training, AOA, Chicago, Illinois.
Table 1.
No. of AOA-Approved Residency and Internship Programs and Trainees Filling Available Positions as Reported by State, 2010-2011 Academic Yeara
Internship Programs Residency Programs Total
State Programs Positions Trainees Programs Positions Trainees Programs Positions Trainees
Alabama 0 0 0 1 18 0 1 18 0
Alaska 0 0 0 1 9 6 1 9 6
Arizona 0 0 0 8 82 45 8 82 45
Arkansas 0 0 0 2 15 4 2 15 4
California 6 69 34 25 317 205 31 386 239
Colorado 0 0 0 2 39 10 2 39 10
Connecticut 1 12 0 1 11 8 2 23 8
Delaware 1 15 10 1 24 9 2 39 19
Florida 9 122 65 58 734 378 67 856 443
Georgia 1 4 2 4 47 15 5 51 17
Illinois 4 36 30 42 443 286 46 479 316
Indiana 1 3 1 3 23 15 4 26 16
Iowa 0 0 0 4 40 30 4 40 30
Kansas 0 0 0 1 13 12 1 13 12
Kentucky 2 9 6 6 51 18 8 60 24
Maine 0 0 0 6 72 46 6 72 46
Massachusetts 1 4 4 2 18 13 3 22 17
Michigan 20 202 88 191 1947 1351 211 2149 1439
Minnesota 0 0 0 2 14 13 2 14 13
Mississippi 0 0 0 3 30 13 3 30 13
Missouri 3 15 11 21 166 120 24 181 131
Nevada 1 15 12 7 95 62 8 110 74
New Jersey 6 72 28 56 628 366 62 700 394
New York 18 218 107 69 918 554 87 1136 661
North Carolina 2 17 1 4 52 8 6 69 9
Ohio 10 94 29 100 898 632 110 992 661
Oklahoma 2 16 5 28 291 227 30 307 232
Oregon 1 12 6 8 76 19 9 88 25
Pennsylvania 31 254 119 99 1213 839 130 1467 958
Rhode Island 0 0 0 4 50 28 4 50 28
South Carolina 0 0 0 1 14 13 1 14 13
Tennessee 0 0 0 3 33 17 3 33 17
Texas 4 32 7 24 209 120 28 241 127
Virginia 3 26 12 14 218 96 17 244 108
Washington 0 0 0 3 17 8 3 17 8
West Virginia 7 37 14 20 223 100 27 260 114
Wisconsin 0 0 0 2 50 38 2 50 38
Wyoming 0 0 0 1 12 7 1 12 7
Total 134 1284 591 827 9110 5731 961 10,394 6322
  a Data shown represent positions approved by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Program and Trainee Review Council for the academic year indicated. Data are current as of May 31, 2011. No internship or residency positions are currently approved by the AOA in the District of Columbia or in the following states: Hawaii, Idaho, Louisiana, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Vermont.
  Source: Training Programs by State: Year-End Reports, Division of Postdoctoral Training, AOA, Chicago, Illinois.
×
Table 2.
No. of AOA-Approved Residency Programs, Positions, and Residents as Reported by Academic Year and Specialty
2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011
Specialty Programs Positions Residents Programs Positions Residents Programs Positions Residents
Anesthesiology 12 107 92 12 112 96 12 118 107
Anesthesiology and pain management 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 2
Pediatric anesthesiology 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Dermatology 20 123 93 22 130 94 23 137 106
MOHS micrographic surgery 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Diagnostic Radiology 14 133 120 15 156 114 15 161 129
Pediatric radiology 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Radiology (vascular interventional) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emergency Medicine 43 979 780 44 1007 810 45 1042 839
Emergency medical service 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
Family Practice 184 2341 1056 187 2391 1213 192 2553 1347
Geriatrics (family practice) 6 27 2 8 33 2 10 37 2
Internal Medicine 88 1320 672 96 1476 796 102 1672 935
Allergy and immunology 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0
Cardiac electrophysiology 1 3 0 2 5 1 2 5 0
Cardiology 23 148 84 23 148 82 24 156 90
Cardiology (interventional) 10 25 9 11 28 5 12 29 11
Critical care medicine 5 13 4 7 17 7 8 20 8
Endocrinology 3 6 4 3 6 3 3 6 3
Gastroenterology 12 51 24 13 60 32 13 63 39
Geriatrics (internal medicine) 3 11 0 4 13 0 5 15 2
Hematology and oncology 4 11 5 5 14 9 5 14 11
Infectious diseases 2 8 2 2 8 2 2 8 2
Nephrology 7 20 8 7 20 10 7 20 8
Oncology 3 9 1 4 12 0 4 12 0
Pulmonary (critical care) 7 22 11 7 24 14 8 31 17
Pulmonary medicine 4 11 2 4 11 2 4 11 3
Rheumatology 3 8 7 4 10 7 4 12 9
Neurology 7 61 31 7 74 47 7 74 54
NMM and OMM 8 38 17 8 40 16 7 38 17
NMM Plus 1 19 62 14 17 55 24 20 63 20
Obstetrics and Gynecology 31 370 247 30 380 265 29 363 295
Gynecologic oncology 3 9 7 3 9 6 3 9 8
Maternal and fetal medicine 2 7 6 3 10 5 3 10 4
Reproductive endocrinology 1 3 2 3 9 2 4 12 1
Ophthalmology 12 57 44 12 58 44 12 58 46
Orthopedic Surgery 31 465 393 33 497 407 35 520 419
Hand surgery 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Musculoskeletal oncology 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Orthopedic spine surgery 2 3 0 2 3 0 1 1 0
Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery 19 132 103 19 134 114 20 143 120
Otolaryngic allergy 2 6 1 2 6 3 3 9 3
Pathology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Forensic pathology 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
Pediatrics 17 225 130 17 229 140 18 250 153
Pediatric allergy and immunology 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine 3 28 23 3 29 26 4 38 23
Preventive Medicine and Public Health 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 0
Preventive Medicine (Occupational and Environmental) 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 1
Proctology 2 5 2 2 5 3 2 5 2
Psychiatry 9 95 32 11 127 49 13 151 65
Child psychiatry 2 8 4 2 8 1 3 12 3
Geriatric psychiatry 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 1
Surgery (General) 41 536 435 42 571 455 43 620 481
Cardiothoracic surgery 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 0
General vascular surgery 9 20 4 7 15 3 8 17 6
Neurologic surgery 11 97 81 11 99 86 11 103 83
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 6 21 16 7 24 16 7 24 16
Urologic surgery 11 123 55 9 82 66 10 98 68
Combined
Emergency medicine and family medicine 5 59 32 5 64 37 4 60 38
Emergency medicine and internal medicine 12 130 92 12 133 80 11 129 82
Integrated family medicine/NMM 7 49 21 6 40 18 8 64 18
Pediatrics and internal medicine 2 18 10 2 18 10 1 10 10
Conjointa
Hospice and palliative care 2 4 0 4 9 1 5 10 2
Pediatric emergency medicine NA NA NA 1 6 0 1 6 0
Sleep medicine 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 0
Sports medicine 16 47 12 17 47 16 17 47 19
Undersea and hyperbaric medicine NA NA NA 1 2 0 1 2 0
Total 762 8094 4794 792 8501 5247 827 9110 5731
  a Hospice and palliative care, pediatric emergency medicine, sleep medicine, sports medicine, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine are fellowships governed by Conjoint Standards by 2 or more specialties.
  Abbreviations: AOA, American Osteopathic Association; NMM, neuromusculoskeletal medicine; OMM, osteopathic manipulative medicine.
  Sources: AOA Intern/Resident Contracts received by the division of postdoctoral training for the academic years shown (taken annually on May 31); and AOA's Trainee Information, Verification and Registration Audit system, or TIVRA, academic years 2010-2011. Data for the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 academic years have been reported previously in JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.1,7
Table 2.
No. of AOA-Approved Residency Programs, Positions, and Residents as Reported by Academic Year and Specialty
2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011
Specialty Programs Positions Residents Programs Positions Residents Programs Positions Residents
Anesthesiology 12 107 92 12 112 96 12 118 107
Anesthesiology and pain management 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 2
Pediatric anesthesiology 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Dermatology 20 123 93 22 130 94 23 137 106
MOHS micrographic surgery 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Diagnostic Radiology 14 133 120 15 156 114 15 161 129
Pediatric radiology 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Radiology (vascular interventional) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emergency Medicine 43 979 780 44 1007 810 45 1042 839
Emergency medical service 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
Family Practice 184 2341 1056 187 2391 1213 192 2553 1347
Geriatrics (family practice) 6 27 2 8 33 2 10 37 2
Internal Medicine 88 1320 672 96 1476 796 102 1672 935
Allergy and immunology 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0
Cardiac electrophysiology 1 3 0 2 5 1 2 5 0
Cardiology 23 148 84 23 148 82 24 156 90
Cardiology (interventional) 10 25 9 11 28 5 12 29 11
Critical care medicine 5 13 4 7 17 7 8 20 8
Endocrinology 3 6 4 3 6 3 3 6 3
Gastroenterology 12 51 24 13 60 32 13 63 39
Geriatrics (internal medicine) 3 11 0 4 13 0 5 15 2
Hematology and oncology 4 11 5 5 14 9 5 14 11
Infectious diseases 2 8 2 2 8 2 2 8 2
Nephrology 7 20 8 7 20 10 7 20 8
Oncology 3 9 1 4 12 0 4 12 0
Pulmonary (critical care) 7 22 11 7 24 14 8 31 17
Pulmonary medicine 4 11 2 4 11 2 4 11 3
Rheumatology 3 8 7 4 10 7 4 12 9
Neurology 7 61 31 7 74 47 7 74 54
NMM and OMM 8 38 17 8 40 16 7 38 17
NMM Plus 1 19 62 14 17 55 24 20 63 20
Obstetrics and Gynecology 31 370 247 30 380 265 29 363 295
Gynecologic oncology 3 9 7 3 9 6 3 9 8
Maternal and fetal medicine 2 7 6 3 10 5 3 10 4
Reproductive endocrinology 1 3 2 3 9 2 4 12 1
Ophthalmology 12 57 44 12 58 44 12 58 46
Orthopedic Surgery 31 465 393 33 497 407 35 520 419
Hand surgery 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 0
Musculoskeletal oncology 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Orthopedic spine surgery 2 3 0 2 3 0 1 1 0
Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery 19 132 103 19 134 114 20 143 120
Otolaryngic allergy 2 6 1 2 6 3 3 9 3
Pathology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Forensic pathology 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
Pediatrics 17 225 130 17 229 140 18 250 153
Pediatric allergy and immunology 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine 3 28 23 3 29 26 4 38 23
Preventive Medicine and Public Health 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 0
Preventive Medicine (Occupational and Environmental) 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 1
Proctology 2 5 2 2 5 3 2 5 2
Psychiatry 9 95 32 11 127 49 13 151 65
Child psychiatry 2 8 4 2 8 1 3 12 3
Geriatric psychiatry 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 3 1
Surgery (General) 41 536 435 42 571 455 43 620 481
Cardiothoracic surgery 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 0
General vascular surgery 9 20 4 7 15 3 8 17 6
Neurologic surgery 11 97 81 11 99 86 11 103 83
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 6 21 16 7 24 16 7 24 16
Urologic surgery 11 123 55 9 82 66 10 98 68
Combined
Emergency medicine and family medicine 5 59 32 5 64 37 4 60 38
Emergency medicine and internal medicine 12 130 92 12 133 80 11 129 82
Integrated family medicine/NMM 7 49 21 6 40 18 8 64 18
Pediatrics and internal medicine 2 18 10 2 18 10 1 10 10
Conjointa
Hospice and palliative care 2 4 0 4 9 1 5 10 2
Pediatric emergency medicine NA NA NA 1 6 0 1 6 0
Sleep medicine 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 0
Sports medicine 16 47 12 17 47 16 17 47 19
Undersea and hyperbaric medicine NA NA NA 1 2 0 1 2 0
Total 762 8094 4794 792 8501 5247 827 9110 5731
  a Hospice and palliative care, pediatric emergency medicine, sleep medicine, sports medicine, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine are fellowships governed by Conjoint Standards by 2 or more specialties.
  Abbreviations: AOA, American Osteopathic Association; NMM, neuromusculoskeletal medicine; OMM, osteopathic manipulative medicine.
  Sources: AOA Intern/Resident Contracts received by the division of postdoctoral training for the academic years shown (taken annually on May 31); and AOA's Trainee Information, Verification and Registration Audit system, or TIVRA, academic years 2010-2011. Data for the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 academic years have been reported previously in JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.1,7
×
Table 3.
Net Growth From the 2009-2010 to 2010-2011 Academic Years of AOA-Approved Residency Programs, Positions, and Residents as Reported by Specialty
No.
Specialty Programs Positions Residents
Anesthesiology 0 6 11
Anesthesiology and pain management 0 0 0
Pediatric anesthesiology 0 0 0
Dermatology 1 7 12
MOHS micrographic surgery 0 0 -1
Diagnostic Radiology 0 5 15
Pediatric radiology 0 0 0
Radiology (vascular interventional) 0 0 0
Emergency Medicine 1 35 29
Emergency medical service 0 0 1
Family Practice 5 162 134
Geriatrics (family practice) 2 4 0
Internal Medicine 6 196 139
Allergy and immunology 1 4 0
Cardiac electrophysiology 0 0 -1
Cardiology 1 8 8
Cardiology (interventional) 1 1 6
Critical care medicine 1 3 1
Endocrinology 0 0 0
Gastroenterology 0 3 7
Geriatrics (internal medicine) 1 2 2
Hematology and oncology 0 0 2
Infectious diseases 0 0 0
Nephrology 0 0 -2
Oncology 0 0 0
Pulmonary (critical care) 1 7 3
Pulmonary medicine 0 0 1
Rheumatology 0 2 2
Neurology 0 0 7
NMM and OMM -1 -2 1
NMM plus 1 3 8 -4
Obstetrics and Gynecology -1 -17 30
Gynecologic oncology 0 0 2
Maternal and fetal medicine 0 0 -1
Reproductive endocrinology 1 3 -1
Ophthalmology 0 0 2
Orthopedic Surgery 2 23 12
Hand surgery 0 0 0
Musculoskeletal oncology 1 1 0
Orthopedic spine surgery -1 -2 0
Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery 1 9 6
Otolaryngic allergy 1 3 0
Pathology 0 0 0
Forensic pathology 0 0 0
Pediatrics 1 21 13
Pediatric allergy and immunology 0 0 0
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine 1 9 -3
Preventive Medicine and Public Health 0 0 -1
Preventive medicine (occupational and environmental) 0 0 0
Proctology 0 0 -1
Psychiatry 2 24 16
Child psychiatry 1 4 2
Geriatric psychiatry 0 0 1
Surgery (General) 1 49 26
Cardiothoracic surgery 0 0 0
General vascular surgery 1 2 3
Neurological surgery 0 4 -3
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 0 0 0
Urologic surgery 1 16 2
Combined
Emergency medicine and family medicine -1 -4 1
Emergency medicine and internal medicine -1 -4 2
Integrated family medicine/NMM 2 24 0
Pediatrics and internal medicine -1 -8 0
Conjointa
Hospice and palliative care 1 1 1
Pediatric emergency medicine 0 0 0
Sleep medicine 0 0 -1
Sports medicine 0 0 3
Undersea and hyperbaric medicine 0 0 0
Total 35 609 484
  a Hospice and palliative care, pediatric emergency medicine, sleep medicine, sports medicine, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine are fellowships governed by Conjoint Standards by 2 or more specialties.
  Abbreviations: AOA, American Osteopathic Association; NMM, neuromusculoskeletal medicine; OMM, osteopathic manipulative medicine.
  Sources: AOA Intern/Resident Contracts received by the division of postdoctoral training for the academic years shown (taken annually on May 31); and AOA's Trainee Information, Verification and Registration Audit system, or TIVRA, academic years 2010-2011.
Table 3.
Net Growth From the 2009-2010 to 2010-2011 Academic Years of AOA-Approved Residency Programs, Positions, and Residents as Reported by Specialty
No.
Specialty Programs Positions Residents
Anesthesiology 0 6 11
Anesthesiology and pain management 0 0 0
Pediatric anesthesiology 0 0 0
Dermatology 1 7 12
MOHS micrographic surgery 0 0 -1
Diagnostic Radiology 0 5 15
Pediatric radiology 0 0 0
Radiology (vascular interventional) 0 0 0
Emergency Medicine 1 35 29
Emergency medical service 0 0 1
Family Practice 5 162 134
Geriatrics (family practice) 2 4 0
Internal Medicine 6 196 139
Allergy and immunology 1 4 0
Cardiac electrophysiology 0 0 -1
Cardiology 1 8 8
Cardiology (interventional) 1 1 6
Critical care medicine 1 3 1
Endocrinology 0 0 0
Gastroenterology 0 3 7
Geriatrics (internal medicine) 1 2 2
Hematology and oncology 0 0 2
Infectious diseases 0 0 0
Nephrology 0 0 -2
Oncology 0 0 0
Pulmonary (critical care) 1 7 3
Pulmonary medicine 0 0 1
Rheumatology 0 2 2
Neurology 0 0 7
NMM and OMM -1 -2 1
NMM plus 1 3 8 -4
Obstetrics and Gynecology -1 -17 30
Gynecologic oncology 0 0 2
Maternal and fetal medicine 0 0 -1
Reproductive endocrinology 1 3 -1
Ophthalmology 0 0 2
Orthopedic Surgery 2 23 12
Hand surgery 0 0 0
Musculoskeletal oncology 1 1 0
Orthopedic spine surgery -1 -2 0
Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery 1 9 6
Otolaryngic allergy 1 3 0
Pathology 0 0 0
Forensic pathology 0 0 0
Pediatrics 1 21 13
Pediatric allergy and immunology 0 0 0
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine 1 9 -3
Preventive Medicine and Public Health 0 0 -1
Preventive medicine (occupational and environmental) 0 0 0
Proctology 0 0 -1
Psychiatry 2 24 16
Child psychiatry 1 4 2
Geriatric psychiatry 0 0 1
Surgery (General) 1 49 26
Cardiothoracic surgery 0 0 0
General vascular surgery 1 2 3
Neurological surgery 0 4 -3
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 0 0 0
Urologic surgery 1 16 2
Combined
Emergency medicine and family medicine -1 -4 1
Emergency medicine and internal medicine -1 -4 2
Integrated family medicine/NMM 2 24 0
Pediatrics and internal medicine -1 -8 0
Conjointa
Hospice and palliative care 1 1 1
Pediatric emergency medicine 0 0 0
Sleep medicine 0 0 -1
Sports medicine 0 0 3
Undersea and hyperbaric medicine 0 0 0
Total 35 609 484
  a Hospice and palliative care, pediatric emergency medicine, sleep medicine, sports medicine, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine are fellowships governed by Conjoint Standards by 2 or more specialties.
  Abbreviations: AOA, American Osteopathic Association; NMM, neuromusculoskeletal medicine; OMM, osteopathic manipulative medicine.
  Sources: AOA Intern/Resident Contracts received by the division of postdoctoral training for the academic years shown (taken annually on May 31); and AOA's Trainee Information, Verification and Registration Audit system, or TIVRA, academic years 2010-2011.
×