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Original Contribution  |   July 2010
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Medical School–Based Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics
Author Notes
  • From Restorative Health Center, LLC, in Salt Lake City, Utah (Dr Lund), and the Department of Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine at the University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine in Biddeford, Maine (Dr Carreiro). 
  • Address correspondence to Gregg Lund, DO, MS, Restorative Health Center, 2150 South 1300 East, Suite 500, Salt Lake City, UT 84106-4375. E-mail: gregglund@usa.net 
Article Information
Pediatrics
Original Contribution   |   July 2010
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Medical School–Based Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, July 2010, Vol. 110, 376-380. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2010.110.7.376
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, July 2010, Vol. 110, 376-380. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2010.110.7.376
Abstract

Context: Manual medicine—specifically osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT)—is commonly used in treating patients aged 18 years or younger. However, no published reports have described characteristics of this patient population or the conditions for which OMT is used with these patients. To better counsel parents, train physicians and other healthcare providers, and prioritize research, an improved understanding of the use of OMT in children is needed.

Objective: To characterize pediatric patients and their conditions as seen in a medical school–based osteopathic manipulative medicine clinic.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of administrative data on the use of OMT.

Setting: Faculty osteopathic manipulative medicine specialty clinics associated with the University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Patients: Data were analyzed from patients seen in the clinics from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2007, if they were younger than 19 years at their first visit during that period.

Outcomes Measures: Factors included in the data analysis were patient age at first visit, age at time of visit, number of visits during the study period, types of clinical diagnoses, and visits with nonmusculoskeletal diagnoses.

Results: A total of 407 patients generated 1500 clinic visits. Data showed a mean of 3.7 visits per patient (25th-75th percentiles = 2-5 visits) during the 1-year study period. The mean age at the first clinic visit was 7 years, 3 months, with the 25th-to-75th percentile being 1 year, 9 months, to 12 years, 3 months. Clinic visits by age group (ie, age at time of visit) as percentages of total visits were as follows: 0 to 11 months, 13.7%; 1 to 4 years, 33.3%; 5 to 12 years, 28.9%, older than 12 years, 24.2%. Diagnoses provided in visits covered a wide variety of common pediatric conditions. For the entire study population, 43.5% of visits included nonmusculoskeletal diagnoses. The percentages of visits with nonmusculoskeletal diagnoses for each age group were as follows: 0 to 11 months, 33.7%; 1 to 4 years, 64.0%; 5 to 12 years, 48.8%; older than 12 years, 17.7%.

Conclusion: Pediatric patients seen in the faculty osteopathic manipulative medicine specialty clinic included the entire pediatric age range and a wide range of common pediatric conditions. A substantial number of visits involved treatment for nonmusculoskeletal conditions. Further investigation is needed to determine if the patient sample of the present study is representative of other clinical settings or geographic regions.

Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) and other manipulative therapies are commonly used with patients in the pediatric age group. However, no previously published studies have described detailed characteristics of the pediatric patient population treated with OMT—or of the conditions for which OMT is used in this group. A description of the clinical reality of OMT use with pediatric patients is needed to provide improved awareness of the indications for OMT, to identify areas for further research, and to ensure that OMT training produces osteopathic physicians who are competent to manage conditions they may encounter in practice. 
No previously published data specifically document the frequency of OMT use in children. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)1 of the US Department of Health and Human Services, as well as the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)2 of the National Institutes of Health, recently reported on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). According to the CDC/NCHS study,1 2.8% of all children younger than 18 years had been treated with either OMT or chiropractic therapy within the previous 12 months. This percentage increased to 5.7% among children of parents who themselves used CAM modalities.1 
Both the NCCAM2 and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)3 have suggested that physicians discuss the use of CAM with their patients. However, the NCCAM program called “Time to Talk” encourages such discussion only with patients aged 50 years and older.2 The AAP made its recommendation in a clinical report on CAM,3 which only briefly mentioned OMT while discussing chiropractic and massage therapy in detail. Without healthcare providers having a greater awareness of the use of OMT in children, they are unlikely to mention this treatment option in pediatric patient encounters, thereby limiting OMT consideration to adult clinical care. 
Research efforts for OMT in children, as with many other neglected domains of medical research, do not have scientific or political groups to champion this area for study. Although a 2-year multicenter study of OMT as an adjunct in the treatment of patients with otitis media4 is a welcomed start, more studies of the efficacy of OMT in children are needed. Having an understanding of OMT used in contemporary practice could play a role in identifying and supporting requests for research funding. 
Considering these identified deficits in present knowledge, our objective was to characterize the pediatric patient population that is being treated with OMT. We sought to include a description of patient age distribution in our analysis, as well as an identification of conditions for which care was sought, describing both specific diagnoses and the frequency with which nonmusculoskeletal conditions are addressed with OMT. 
Methods
We studied data on patients cared for by University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine (UNECOM) faculty at the clinics of the Department of Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM)—in Biddeford and Portland, Maine. These are OMM specialty clinics designed specifically for patients to be evaluated and, if appropriate, treated with OMT. We included only patients seen at the faculty clinics. Patients seen in other UNECOM specialty clinics or in the OMM resident or student clinics were not included in the present analysis. Included patients were those seen from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2007, who were younger than 19 years at the time of their initial visits during the study period. 
We analyzed administrative data that had been collected for billing purposes. The billing system database was queried to produce a file that included demographic data on each patient (ie, name, date of birth) and data for each patient clinic visit (ie, date of service, osteopathic physician provider, all diagnoses from that visit). These data were entered into a database created with Microsoft Access 2007 software (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington). Data were aggregated and de-identified for analysis in accordance with, and with approval of, the University of New England's Institutional Review Board and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance officer. Analyses were carried out using Microsoft Excel 2007 software (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington), with data exported from the de-identified dataset. 
Patient characteristics included for analysis were age at initial visit, age at each subsequent visit, and total number of visits in 2007. Diagnoses were classified as being either musculoskeletal or nonmusculoskeletal. The diagnosis classification was determined before other any other analyses were conducted by our agreement based on our clinical experience and expertise. This characterization was intended to represent a clinical characterization rather than to identify etiologic factors. Diagnoses of somatic dysfunction and of visits with only somatic dysfunction diagnoses were not included in our analysis, because such diagnoses are not descriptive of patients' more generalizable clinical conditions—the focus of the present study. 
The unit used for analysis of the diagnosis data was the clinic visit rather than the patient. Clinic visit was used for two reasons. One reason was that we could not determine from the available data if the same diagnosis found on two visits of the same patient constituted two separate episodes of that diagnosis or a continuation of the same episode of the initial diagnosis. A more important reason, however, was that a major goal of the present project was to identify clinic visits for nonmusculoskeletal conditions. This could not be determined if all visit diagnoses for a patient were aggregated for the study year. 
Results
During the 1-year study period, 407 patients generated 1500 clinic visits. The data represented a mean of 3.7 visits per patient (25th-75th percentiles = 2-5 visits) during the study period. The mean age of patients at the first visit in 2007 was 7 years, 3 months, with the 25th-to-75th percentile being 1 year, 9 months to 12 years, 3 months. The data demonstrated a wide representation of the pediatric age range as seen in the outpatient setting. 
The distribution of patients' ages at the time of their first clinic visits during the study period is presented in Table 1. The clinic visit count according to patient age group is shown in Table 2. The age groups were defined by stages of child development without attempting to equalize the number of months or years in each group. These age groupings were infant (0-11 months), preschool (1-4 years), school age (5-12 years), and adolescent (>12 years). The division of age groups was based on generally accepted pediatric determinations or on agreement of the authors based on their combined clinical experiences. 
Table 1
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Patient Age at First Visit (N=407)

Patient Age Group

Patients, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo62 (15.2)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 125 (30.7)
▪ School, 5-12 y127 (31.2)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y
93 (22.9)
Table 1
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Patient Age at First Visit (N=407)

Patient Age Group

Patients, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo62 (15.2)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 125 (30.7)
▪ School, 5-12 y127 (31.2)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y
93 (22.9)
×
Table 2
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Patient Age Groups and Visit Counts (N=1500)

Patient Age Group

Visit Count, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo205 (13.7)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 499 (33.3)
▪ School, 5-12 y433 (28.9)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y
363 (24.2)
Table 2
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Patient Age Groups and Visit Counts (N=1500)

Patient Age Group

Visit Count, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo205 (13.7)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 499 (33.3)
▪ School, 5-12 y433 (28.9)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y
363 (24.2)
×
Of the 1500 clinic visits, 129 involved diagnoses of somatic dysfunction, and the remaining 1371 clinic visits were used to determine frequency of diagnoses. The distribution of diagnoses during clinic visits are presented in Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, and Table 6 for each age group (at time of visit) as the number of individual visits with specific diagnoses. For each visit, there may be more than one diagnosis. Data are presented in each age group as the top 10 most frequent diagnoses overall, the top 5 nonmusculoskeletal diagnoses, and top 5 musculoskeletal diagnoses. Table 3 shows results for the 0 to 11-month group, Table 4 for the 1 to 4-year group, Table 5 for the 5 to 12-year group, and Table 6 for the older than 12-year group. 
Table 3
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 0 to 11 Months (n=196) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Torticollis 74 (37.8)
□ Skull or face deformity61 (31.1)
□ Otitis media 24 (12.2)
□ Feeding problem11 (5.6)
□ Muscle spasm 9 (4.6)
□ Gastroesophageal reflux disease9 (4.6)
□ Fussy infant/baby 7 (3.6)
□ Abdominal pain5 (2.6)
□ Upper respiratory infection 5 (2.6)
□ Failure to thrive3 (1.5)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Otitis media24 (12.2))
□ Feeding problem 11 (5.6)
□ Gastroesophageal reflux disease9 (4.6)
□ Fussy infant/baby 7 (3.6)
□ Abdominal pain5 (2.6)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Torticollis74 (37.8)
□ Skull or face deformity 61 (31.1)
□ Muscle spasm9 (4.6)
□ Abnormality of gait 2 (1.0)
□ Cervicalgia, dislocated elbow, or myalgia
1 (0.5) each
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 3
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 0 to 11 Months (n=196) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Torticollis 74 (37.8)
□ Skull or face deformity61 (31.1)
□ Otitis media 24 (12.2)
□ Feeding problem11 (5.6)
□ Muscle spasm 9 (4.6)
□ Gastroesophageal reflux disease9 (4.6)
□ Fussy infant/baby 7 (3.6)
□ Abdominal pain5 (2.6)
□ Upper respiratory infection 5 (2.6)
□ Failure to thrive3 (1.5)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Otitis media24 (12.2))
□ Feeding problem 11 (5.6)
□ Gastroesophageal reflux disease9 (4.6)
□ Fussy infant/baby 7 (3.6)
□ Abdominal pain5 (2.6)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Torticollis74 (37.8)
□ Skull or face deformity 61 (31.1)
□ Muscle spasm9 (4.6)
□ Abnormality of gait 2 (1.0)
□ Cervicalgia, dislocated elbow, or myalgia
1 (0.5) each
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Table 4
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 1 to 4 Years (n=433) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Otitis media 149 (34.4)
□ Skull or face deformity68 (15.7)
□ Torticollis 33 (7.6)
□ Upper respiratory infection24 (5.5)
□ Behavioral problems 15 (3.5)
□ Sleep disturbance14 (3.2)
□ Head injury 11 (2.5)
□ Muscle spasm11 (2.5)
□ Asthma 9 (2.1)
□ Constipation8 (1.8)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Otitis media149 (34.4)
□ Upper respiratory infection 24 (5.5)
□ Behavioral problems15 (3.5)
□ Sleep disturbance 14 (3.2)
□ Asthma9 (2.1)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Skull or face deformity68 (15.7)
□ Torticollis 33 (7.6)
□ Head injury11 (2.5)
□ Muscle spasm 11 (2.5)
□ Abnormality of gait
7 (1.6)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 4
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 1 to 4 Years (n=433) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Otitis media 149 (34.4)
□ Skull or face deformity68 (15.7)
□ Torticollis 33 (7.6)
□ Upper respiratory infection24 (5.5)
□ Behavioral problems 15 (3.5)
□ Sleep disturbance14 (3.2)
□ Head injury 11 (2.5)
□ Muscle spasm11 (2.5)
□ Asthma 9 (2.1)
□ Constipation8 (1.8)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Otitis media149 (34.4)
□ Upper respiratory infection 24 (5.5)
□ Behavioral problems15 (3.5)
□ Sleep disturbance 14 (3.2)
□ Asthma9 (2.1)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Skull or face deformity68 (15.7)
□ Torticollis 33 (7.6)
□ Head injury11 (2.5)
□ Muscle spasm 11 (2.5)
□ Abnormality of gait
7 (1.6)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Table 5
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 5 to 12 Years (n=391) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Headache 53 (13.6)
□ Scoliosis53 (13.6)
□ Otitis media 33 (8.4)
□ Neck pain32 (8.2)
□ Behavioral problems 30 (7.7)
□ Lumbar back pain27 (6.9)
□ Thoracic back pain 21 (5.4)
□ Unequal leg length21 (5.4)
□ Muscle spasm 15 (3.8)
□ Leg pain12 (3.1)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Headache53 (13.6)
□ Otitis media 33 (8.4)
□ Behavioral problems30 (7.7)
□ Asthma 7 (1.8)
□Celiac disease6 (1.5)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Scoliosis53 (13.6)
□ Neck pain 32 (8.2)
□ Lumbar back pain27 (6.9)
□ Thoracic back pain 21 (5.4)
□ Unequal leg length
21 (5.4)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 5
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 5 to 12 Years (n=391) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Headache 53 (13.6)
□ Scoliosis53 (13.6)
□ Otitis media 33 (8.4)
□ Neck pain32 (8.2)
□ Behavioral problems 30 (7.7)
□ Lumbar back pain27 (6.9)
□ Thoracic back pain 21 (5.4)
□ Unequal leg length21 (5.4)
□ Muscle spasm 15 (3.8)
□ Leg pain12 (3.1)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Headache53 (13.6)
□ Otitis media 33 (8.4)
□ Behavioral problems30 (7.7)
□ Asthma 7 (1.8)
□Celiac disease6 (1.5)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Scoliosis53 (13.6)
□ Neck pain 32 (8.2)
□ Lumbar back pain27 (6.9)
□ Thoracic back pain 21 (5.4)
□ Unequal leg length
21 (5.4)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Table 6
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Older Than 12 Years (n=351) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Lumbar back pain 64 (18.2)
□ Scoliosis55 (15.7)
□ Neck Pain 53 (15.1)
□ Headache53 (15.1)
□ Thoracic back pain 47 (13.4)
□ Otitis media33 (9.4)
□ Behavioral problems 28 (8.0)
□ Unequal leg length21 (6.0)
□ Muscle spasm 15 (4.3)
□ Hip Pain14 (4.0)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Headache53 (15.1)
□ Otitis media 33 (9.4)
□ Behavioral problems28 (8.0)
□ Hypotonia 11 (3.1)
□ Celiac disease6 (1.7)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Lumbar back pain64 (18.2)
□ Scoliosis 55 (15.7)
□ Neck Pain53 (15.1)
□ Thoracic back pain 47 (13.4)
□ Unequal leg length
21 (6.0)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 6
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Older Than 12 Years (n=351) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Lumbar back pain 64 (18.2)
□ Scoliosis55 (15.7)
□ Neck Pain 53 (15.1)
□ Headache53 (15.1)
□ Thoracic back pain 47 (13.4)
□ Otitis media33 (9.4)
□ Behavioral problems 28 (8.0)
□ Unequal leg length21 (6.0)
□ Muscle spasm 15 (4.3)
□ Hip Pain14 (4.0)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Headache53 (15.1)
□ Otitis media 33 (9.4)
□ Behavioral problems28 (8.0)
□ Hypotonia 11 (3.1)
□ Celiac disease6 (1.7)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Lumbar back pain64 (18.2)
□ Scoliosis 55 (15.7)
□ Neck Pain53 (15.1)
□ Thoracic back pain 47 (13.4)
□ Unequal leg length
21 (6.0)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Frequency of clinic visits with nonmusculoskeletal diagnoses for each group are presented in Table 7. In each age group, a substantial proportion of the patients presented with nonmusculoskeletal diagnoses. The percent of visits with nonmusculoskeletal diagnoses were 33.7% for the 0 to 11-month group, 64.0% for the 1 to 4-year group, 48.8% for the 5 to 12-year group, and 17.7% for the older than 12-year group. For the entire study population, 43.5% of the visits included non-musculoskeletal diagnoses. 
Table 7
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Percentage of Clinic Visits With Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses For Each Age Group

Patient Age Group

Visit Count, n*

Nonmusculoskeletal Visit Count, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo19666 (33.7)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 433 277 (64.0)
▪ School, 5-12 y391191(48.8)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y 351 63 (17.9)
▪ All Age Groups
1371
597 (43.5)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 7
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Percentage of Clinic Visits With Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses For Each Age Group

Patient Age Group

Visit Count, n*

Nonmusculoskeletal Visit Count, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo19666 (33.7)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 433 277 (64.0)
▪ School, 5-12 y391191(48.8)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y 351 63 (17.9)
▪ All Age Groups
1371
597 (43.5)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Comment
Reports have been published on the use of OMT for a wide variety of clinical conditions. However, we believe the present study is the first to characterize the overall pediatric patient population treated with OMT. Findings of the present study may be useful for informing clinicians (eg, physicans, nurse practitioners, occupational therapists, physical therapists) who care for children but do not perform OMT about potential indications for OMT in the pediatric population. The findings may also help these clinicians recognize which of their patients may be using OMT. Per recommendations of the CDC/NCHS,1 NCCAM,2 and AAP,3 all clinicians should be familiar with all therapies to which their patients are exposed, especially in the primary care setting. 
The findings of the present study could also be used by the osteopathic medical profession in developing a research agenda for OMT during childhood. Understanding the use of OMT in common clinical practice—and even in a specialty clinical environment—will not only offer research direction, but also serve to identify clinical settings in which large numbers of pediatric patients might be available for study participation. In addition, the techniques used to conduct the present study could be replicated or expanded to investigate OMT use in other age groups, patient populations, and settings. 
Educators may find these data useful in designing curricula for osteopathic medical students, as well as postgraduate and continuing osteopathic medical education. If training programs are to prepare osteopathic physicians to be competent in patient care, the developers of these programs must have a realistic understanding of what trainees may encounter in clinical practice. 
As in many retrospective studies, the data in the present report were collected for purposes other than qualitative research. Therefore, strict diagnostic criteria were not prospectively described and adhered to. Nevertheless, the methodology in this study can serve as a first step toward a better understanding of current clinical pediatric care. 
The present study was conducted in a specific clinical setting—two medical school–based OMM specialty clinics in Maine. Whether characteristics of pediatric patients seen in other clinical settings or geographic regions would be different from those found in this study will need to be analyzed in future studies. 
Conclusion
Pediatric patients seen in the faculty OMM specialty clinic of UNECOM included the entire pediatric age range seen in outpatient settings. A wide spectrum of common pediatric conditions was seen among patients, and a substantial number of clinic visits involved nonmusculoskeletal conditions. Whether the patient sample analyzed in the present study is representative of pediatric patients seen in other clinical settings or geographic regions will need to be determined by further investigation. 
 Financial Disclosures: None reported.
 
We would like to thank the UNECOM OMM faculty and staff for their commitment to providing valuable healthcare services to the children of Maine. 
Barnes PM, Bloom B, Nahin RL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. Natl Health Stat Report. 2008;12:1-23.
Time to talk. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web site. http://nccam.nih.gov/timetotalk/. Accessed June 5, 2009.
Kemper KJ, Vohra S, Walls R; Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Provisional Section on Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine. American Academy of Pediatrics. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatrics [review]. Pediatrics. 2008;122(6):1374-1386. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/122/6/1374. Accessed June 17, 2010.
Steele KM, Viola J, Burns E, Carreiro JE. Brief report of a clinical trial on the duration of middle ear effusion in young children using a standardized osteopathic manipulative medicine protocol. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2010;110(5): 278-284. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/reprint/110/5/278. Accessed July 5, 2010.
Table 1
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Patient Age at First Visit (N=407)

Patient Age Group

Patients, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo62 (15.2)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 125 (30.7)
▪ School, 5-12 y127 (31.2)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y
93 (22.9)
Table 1
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Patient Age at First Visit (N=407)

Patient Age Group

Patients, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo62 (15.2)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 125 (30.7)
▪ School, 5-12 y127 (31.2)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y
93 (22.9)
×
Table 2
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Patient Age Groups and Visit Counts (N=1500)

Patient Age Group

Visit Count, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo205 (13.7)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 499 (33.3)
▪ School, 5-12 y433 (28.9)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y
363 (24.2)
Table 2
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Patient Age Groups and Visit Counts (N=1500)

Patient Age Group

Visit Count, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo205 (13.7)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 499 (33.3)
▪ School, 5-12 y433 (28.9)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y
363 (24.2)
×
Table 3
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 0 to 11 Months (n=196) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Torticollis 74 (37.8)
□ Skull or face deformity61 (31.1)
□ Otitis media 24 (12.2)
□ Feeding problem11 (5.6)
□ Muscle spasm 9 (4.6)
□ Gastroesophageal reflux disease9 (4.6)
□ Fussy infant/baby 7 (3.6)
□ Abdominal pain5 (2.6)
□ Upper respiratory infection 5 (2.6)
□ Failure to thrive3 (1.5)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Otitis media24 (12.2))
□ Feeding problem 11 (5.6)
□ Gastroesophageal reflux disease9 (4.6)
□ Fussy infant/baby 7 (3.6)
□ Abdominal pain5 (2.6)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Torticollis74 (37.8)
□ Skull or face deformity 61 (31.1)
□ Muscle spasm9 (4.6)
□ Abnormality of gait 2 (1.0)
□ Cervicalgia, dislocated elbow, or myalgia
1 (0.5) each
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 3
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 0 to 11 Months (n=196) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Torticollis 74 (37.8)
□ Skull or face deformity61 (31.1)
□ Otitis media 24 (12.2)
□ Feeding problem11 (5.6)
□ Muscle spasm 9 (4.6)
□ Gastroesophageal reflux disease9 (4.6)
□ Fussy infant/baby 7 (3.6)
□ Abdominal pain5 (2.6)
□ Upper respiratory infection 5 (2.6)
□ Failure to thrive3 (1.5)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Otitis media24 (12.2))
□ Feeding problem 11 (5.6)
□ Gastroesophageal reflux disease9 (4.6)
□ Fussy infant/baby 7 (3.6)
□ Abdominal pain5 (2.6)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Torticollis74 (37.8)
□ Skull or face deformity 61 (31.1)
□ Muscle spasm9 (4.6)
□ Abnormality of gait 2 (1.0)
□ Cervicalgia, dislocated elbow, or myalgia
1 (0.5) each
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Table 4
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 1 to 4 Years (n=433) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Otitis media 149 (34.4)
□ Skull or face deformity68 (15.7)
□ Torticollis 33 (7.6)
□ Upper respiratory infection24 (5.5)
□ Behavioral problems 15 (3.5)
□ Sleep disturbance14 (3.2)
□ Head injury 11 (2.5)
□ Muscle spasm11 (2.5)
□ Asthma 9 (2.1)
□ Constipation8 (1.8)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Otitis media149 (34.4)
□ Upper respiratory infection 24 (5.5)
□ Behavioral problems15 (3.5)
□ Sleep disturbance 14 (3.2)
□ Asthma9 (2.1)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Skull or face deformity68 (15.7)
□ Torticollis 33 (7.6)
□ Head injury11 (2.5)
□ Muscle spasm 11 (2.5)
□ Abnormality of gait
7 (1.6)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 4
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 1 to 4 Years (n=433) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Otitis media 149 (34.4)
□ Skull or face deformity68 (15.7)
□ Torticollis 33 (7.6)
□ Upper respiratory infection24 (5.5)
□ Behavioral problems 15 (3.5)
□ Sleep disturbance14 (3.2)
□ Head injury 11 (2.5)
□ Muscle spasm11 (2.5)
□ Asthma 9 (2.1)
□ Constipation8 (1.8)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Otitis media149 (34.4)
□ Upper respiratory infection 24 (5.5)
□ Behavioral problems15 (3.5)
□ Sleep disturbance 14 (3.2)
□ Asthma9 (2.1)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Skull or face deformity68 (15.7)
□ Torticollis 33 (7.6)
□ Head injury11 (2.5)
□ Muscle spasm 11 (2.5)
□ Abnormality of gait
7 (1.6)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Table 5
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 5 to 12 Years (n=391) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Headache 53 (13.6)
□ Scoliosis53 (13.6)
□ Otitis media 33 (8.4)
□ Neck pain32 (8.2)
□ Behavioral problems 30 (7.7)
□ Lumbar back pain27 (6.9)
□ Thoracic back pain 21 (5.4)
□ Unequal leg length21 (5.4)
□ Muscle spasm 15 (3.8)
□ Leg pain12 (3.1)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Headache53 (13.6)
□ Otitis media 33 (8.4)
□ Behavioral problems30 (7.7)
□ Asthma 7 (1.8)
□Celiac disease6 (1.5)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Scoliosis53 (13.6)
□ Neck pain 32 (8.2)
□ Lumbar back pain27 (6.9)
□ Thoracic back pain 21 (5.4)
□ Unequal leg length
21 (5.4)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 5
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Aged 5 to 12 Years (n=391) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Headache 53 (13.6)
□ Scoliosis53 (13.6)
□ Otitis media 33 (8.4)
□ Neck pain32 (8.2)
□ Behavioral problems 30 (7.7)
□ Lumbar back pain27 (6.9)
□ Thoracic back pain 21 (5.4)
□ Unequal leg length21 (5.4)
□ Muscle spasm 15 (3.8)
□ Leg pain12 (3.1)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Headache53 (13.6)
□ Otitis media 33 (8.4)
□ Behavioral problems30 (7.7)
□ Asthma 7 (1.8)
□Celiac disease6 (1.5)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Scoliosis53 (13.6)
□ Neck pain 32 (8.2)
□ Lumbar back pain27 (6.9)
□ Thoracic back pain 21 (5.4)
□ Unequal leg length
21 (5.4)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Table 6
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Older Than 12 Years (n=351) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Lumbar back pain 64 (18.2)
□ Scoliosis55 (15.7)
□ Neck Pain 53 (15.1)
□ Headache53 (15.1)
□ Thoracic back pain 47 (13.4)
□ Otitis media33 (9.4)
□ Behavioral problems 28 (8.0)
□ Unequal leg length21 (6.0)
□ Muscle spasm 15 (4.3)
□ Hip Pain14 (4.0)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Headache53 (15.1)
□ Otitis media 33 (9.4)
□ Behavioral problems28 (8.0)
□ Hypotonia 11 (3.1)
□ Celiac disease6 (1.7)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Lumbar back pain64 (18.2)
□ Scoliosis 55 (15.7)
□ Neck Pain53 (15.1)
□ Thoracic back pain 47 (13.4)
□ Unequal leg length
21 (6.0)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 6
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Diagnoses for Patients Older Than 12 Years (n=351) *

Diagnosis

Visit Count, No. (%)
Most Frequent Overall Diagnoses
□ Lumbar back pain 64 (18.2)
□ Scoliosis55 (15.7)
□ Neck Pain 53 (15.1)
□ Headache53 (15.1)
□ Thoracic back pain 47 (13.4)
□ Otitis media33 (9.4)
□ Behavioral problems 28 (8.0)
□ Unequal leg length21 (6.0)
□ Muscle spasm 15 (4.3)
□ Hip Pain14 (4.0)
Most Frequent Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Headache53 (15.1)
□ Otitis media 33 (9.4)
□ Behavioral problems28 (8.0)
□ Hypotonia 11 (3.1)
□ Celiac disease6 (1.7)
Most Frequent Musculoskeletal Diagnoses
□ Lumbar back pain64 (18.2)
□ Scoliosis 55 (15.7)
□ Neck Pain53 (15.1)
□ Thoracic back pain 47 (13.4)
□ Unequal leg length
21 (6.0)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×
Table 7
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Percentage of Clinic Visits With Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses For Each Age Group

Patient Age Group

Visit Count, n*

Nonmusculoskeletal Visit Count, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo19666 (33.7)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 433 277 (64.0)
▪ School, 5-12 y391191(48.8)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y 351 63 (17.9)
▪ All Age Groups
1371
597 (43.5)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
Table 7
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Seen in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Clinics: Percentage of Clinic Visits With Nonmusculoskeletal Diagnoses For Each Age Group

Patient Age Group

Visit Count, n*

Nonmusculoskeletal Visit Count, No. (%)
▪ Infant, 0-11 mo19666 (33.7)
▪ Preschool, 1-4 y 433 277 (64.0)
▪ School, 5-12 y391191(48.8)
▪ Adolescent, >12 y 351 63 (17.9)
▪ All Age Groups
1371
597 (43.5)
 *Data include only clinic visits with diagnoses other than somatic dysfunction.
×