Hans Chaudhry, Robert Schleip, Zhiming Ji, Bruce Bukiet, Miriam Maney, Thomas Findley. Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model for Deformation of Human Fasciae in Manual Therapy. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2008;108(8):379–390. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2008.108.8.379.
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Context: Although mathematical models have been developed for the bony movement occurring during chiropractic manipulation, such models are not available for soft tissue motion.
Objective: To develop a three-dimensional mathematical model for exploring the relationship between mechanical forces and deformation of human fasciae in manual therapy using a finite deformation theory.
Methods: The predicted stresses required to produce plastic deformation were evaluated for a volunteer subject's fascia lata, plantar fascia, and superficial nasal fascia. These stresses were then compared with previous experimental findings for plastic deformation in dense connective tissues. Using the three-dimensional mathematical model, the authors determined the changing amounts of compression and shear produced in fascial tissue during 20 seconds of manual therapy.
Results: The three-dimensional model's equations revealed that very large forces, outside the normal physiologic range, are required to produce even 1% compression and 1% shear in fascia lata and plantar fascia. Such large forces are not required to produce substantial compression and shear in superficial nasal fascia, however.
Conclusion: The palpable sensations of tissue release that are often reported by osteopathic physicians and other manual therapists cannot be due to deformations produced in the firm tissues of plantar fascia and fascia lata. However, palpable tissue release could result from deformation in softer tissues, such as superficial nasal fascia.
k1 = 0 (no shear), k3 = 1 (no compression), k4 = 0.03-0.0413 (for extension)
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