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Medical Education  |   February 2006
Undergraduate Osteopathic Medical Education: Addressing the Impact of College Growth on the Applicant Pool and Student Enrollment
Author Notes
  • From the Division of Predoctoral Education, Department of Accreditation, American Osteopathic Association in Chicago, Ill. 
  • Address correspondence to Ann-Valerie O. Griffin, Division of Predoctoral Education, Department of Accreditation, American Osteopathic Association, 142 E Ontario St, Chicago, IL 60611-2864.E-mail: agriffin@osteopathic.org 
Article Information
Medical Education / Medical School Admissions
Medical Education   |   February 2006
Undergraduate Osteopathic Medical Education: Addressing the Impact of College Growth on the Applicant Pool and Student Enrollment
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, February 2006, Vol. 106, 51-57. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2006.106.2.51
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, February 2006, Vol. 106, 51-57. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2006.106.2.51
This article presents basic data regarding the 20 accredited colleges of osteopathic medicine (COM) for the 2004–2005 academic year. Information in this article has been adapted from the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM)/American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire for the 2004–2005 academic year, fiscal year (FY) 2003, and the 2005–2006 AACOM Tuition Survey. In addition, the draft of the AACOM's 2004 Annual Statistical Report and its historical database compiled from previous surveys were used to prepare this article. 
Shared Challenges in the Medical Community
In the 2004–2005 academic year, COMs confronted a number of challenges also facing the wider medical community in the United States. Some of these challenges were noted by Jordan J. Cohen, MD, former president of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), in his presidential address of November 2005.1 The AAMC president called for allopathic medical schools in the United States to increase their student capacity by 30% over the next decade. Dr Cohen issued this call in response to a possible physician shortage that some studies have predicted.24 
Dr Cohen also used his address to identify the following five challenges facing allopathic medical schools in the United States: (1) increasing the racial and ethnic diversity of the medical profession; (2) leading the transformation of the healthcare system; (3) strengthening the continuum of medical education; (4) upholding the integrity of research and ensuring the safety of human research subjects; and (5) enlarging the capacity of medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education. 
Colleges of osteopathic medicine and the osteopathic medical profession are facing challenges similar to those outlined in Dr Cohen's speech. As is addressed in the present article, osteopathic medical schools are successfully meeting some of these challenges by substantially increasing the student enrollment of women and members of ethnic minorities. Another success for osteopathic medical schools has been maintaining the stability of entrance credentials during a time of modest increases in class sizes. Although beyond the scope of this article, the osteopathic medical profession has, for several years, been examining methods to strengthen the educational continuum, from the undergraduate phase to graduate medical education and continuing medical education.5,6 
This article also addresses how requests for increasing class sizes and the development of new COMs are affecting school applications, enrollment, and entrance credentials. Finally, tuition, revenues, and expenditures at COMs are summarized. 
Increases in Class Size and Growth of New COMs
In anticipation of the possible looming physician shortage,24 many COMs have made requests to the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA) for increases in class sizes. Since 1999, COCA has fielded nearly 25 requests for class-size increases submitted by 85% of the COMs. These requests have resulted in approximately 700 additional students being admitted into COMs. 
Since 2004, COCA has received several applications to establish new COMs. The Commission works diligently to review such applications and other required support materials. 
It is likely that the establishment of new COMs is related to the perceived growing need for physicians in the United States, as well as to an increased number of highly qualified applicants and the success that COMs have had in developing community-based primary care clinical education opportunities. 
Osteopathic Medical School Applicants
With the many requests for increases in class size being made by existing COMs and the increasing number of new COMs, an important question is raised: What effects are these changes having on the applicant pool? 
All 20 COMs experienced an increase in the number of applications for the 2004–2005 academic year, representing an overall increase in applications of 19.8% from the 2003–2004 academic year (Table 1). The five colleges with the most applications received, in consecutive order, were the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM); New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology (NYCOM/NYIT); Midwestern University/Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine (MWU/CCOM); Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (Pennsylvania [LECOM] and Florida [LECOM-Bradenton] campuses combined); and Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine of A.T. Still University of Health Sciences (KCOM/ATSU). The overall 19.8% growth in applications between the 2003–2004 academic year and the 2004–2005 academic year compares with the 5.8% growth documented between the 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 academic years.7 
Table 1
Number of Applications Received, First-Year Enrollment, and Total Enrollment by College


No. of Applications

First-Year Enrollment

Total Enrollment
College*
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-2004
2004-2005
DMU/COM21802279204230795808
KCOM/ATSU 2441 2463 170 178 626 649
KCUMB-COM21032216232239901926
LECOM 2076 2560 227 230 806 863
LECOM-Brandenton.........163...163
MSUCOM 1609 1685 143 148 533 538
MWU/AZCOM20902125147148547557
MWU/CCOM 2747 2943 188 175 664 676
NSU-COM20592202214222769802
NYCOM/NYIT§ 2808 2962 312 315 1161 1151
OSU-COM116211809089350348
OU-COM 2041 2125 114 116 428 427
PCOM3396353926427410111125
PCSOM 1334 1340 75 79 253 265
TCOM13501483129135492501
TUCOM-CA 1942 2157 141 136 490 508
TUCOM-NV.........78...78
UMDNJ-SOM 1737 1984 96 96 352 365
UNECOM18671879124124488491
VCOM 660 1379 154 156 154 307
WesternU/COMP19942033181207700710
WVSOM 1432
1500
103
108
337
367
Total 39,028 46,750 3308 3646 11,857 12,525
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
 Because most applicants apply to several schools, the number of applications shown in this table is significantly higher than the number of individual applicants shown in Table 2.
 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine—Bradenton (Fla) and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine—Nevada are branch campuses that enrolled their first classes in 2004. Each of these branch campuses shares the applicant pool with its parent institution.
 §New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology's data include the Accelerated Program for Émigré Physicians (APEP) students.
Table 1
Number of Applications Received, First-Year Enrollment, and Total Enrollment by College


No. of Applications

First-Year Enrollment

Total Enrollment
College*
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-2004
2004-2005
DMU/COM21802279204230795808
KCOM/ATSU 2441 2463 170 178 626 649
KCUMB-COM21032216232239901926
LECOM 2076 2560 227 230 806 863
LECOM-Brandenton.........163...163
MSUCOM 1609 1685 143 148 533 538
MWU/AZCOM20902125147148547557
MWU/CCOM 2747 2943 188 175 664 676
NSU-COM20592202214222769802
NYCOM/NYIT§ 2808 2962 312 315 1161 1151
OSU-COM116211809089350348
OU-COM 2041 2125 114 116 428 427
PCOM3396353926427410111125
PCSOM 1334 1340 75 79 253 265
TCOM13501483129135492501
TUCOM-CA 1942 2157 141 136 490 508
TUCOM-NV.........78...78
UMDNJ-SOM 1737 1984 96 96 352 365
UNECOM18671879124124488491
VCOM 660 1379 154 156 154 307
WesternU/COMP19942033181207700710
WVSOM 1432
1500
103
108
337
367
Total 39,028 46,750 3308 3646 11,857 12,525
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
 Because most applicants apply to several schools, the number of applications shown in this table is significantly higher than the number of individual applicants shown in Table 2.
 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine—Bradenton (Fla) and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine—Nevada are branch campuses that enrolled their first classes in 2004. Each of these branch campuses shares the applicant pool with its parent institution.
 §New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology's data include the Accelerated Program for Émigré Physicians (APEP) students.
×
Figure 1.
Number of osteopathic medical school applicants processed by the American Association of Osteopathic Medicine Applications Service, by ethnic group and academic year. Underrepresented minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
Figure 1.
Number of osteopathic medical school applicants processed by the American Association of Osteopathic Medicine Applications Service, by ethnic group and academic year. Underrepresented minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
Among those school applications that were processed by the American Association of Osteopathic Medicine Applications Service (AACOMAS), there was a 14% increase between 2004 (n=7240) and 2005 (n=8255). (Table 2). (The AACOMAS-processed applications do not include those individuals who applied directly to the schools.) The total number of AACOMAS-processed applications from members of underrepresented minority groups (blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans) has been on the rise since 2002—in an increase that mirrors that of white, non-Hispanic applicants and Asian/Pacific Islander applicants (Figure 1). In addition, the percentage of women applying to COMs has steadily increased since 2000 (Table 2). 
Table 2
Characteristics of Applicants to Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Participating in the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service by Year of Matriculation, No. (%) *


Year of Matriculation
Characteristic
2000 (n=7708)
2001 (n=7259)
2002 (n=6324)
2003 (n=6813)
2004 (n=7240)
2005 (n=8255)
▪ Race
□ Asian/Pacific Islander 1346 (17.5) 1226 (16.9) 1086 (17.2) 1201 (7.6) 1357 (18.7) 1668 (20.2)
□ Black414 (5.4)335 (4.6)342 (5.4)358 (5.3)404 (5.6)491 (5.9)
□ Hispanic 343 (4.4) 290 (4.0) 287 (4.5) 314 (4.6) 350 (4.8) 419 (5.1)
□ Native American72 (0.9)68 (0.9)55 (0.9)60 (0.9)63 (0.9)59 (0.7)
□ White; non-Hispanic 5099 (66.1) 4731 (65.2) 4285 (67.8) 4567 (67.0) 4725 (65.3) 5229 (63.3)
□ Other or Unknown 434 (5.6)
248 (3.4)
269 (4.2)
314 (4.6)
341 (4.7)
389 (4.7)
Total Underrepresented Minority § 829 (10.8) 693 (10.0) 684 (10.8) 732 (10.7) 817 (11.3) 969 (11.7)
▪ Sex
□ Women 3402 (44.1) 3151 (45.7) 3058 (48.4) 3348 (49.1) 3638 (50.2) 4199 (50.9)
 Source: Data provided by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service, December 22, 2005.
 *This table includes applicants processed by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service (AACOMAS), but does not include those applicants who may have applied directly to the schools. The number of colleges of osteopathic medicine participating in AACOMAS was 18 for 2001, 2002, and 2003, and 19 for 2000, 2004, and 2005.
 Since 2000, applications submitted to the University of North Texas Health Sciences Center at Fort Worth-Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine (TCOM) have been processed through the Texas Statewide Application Service, so data from TCOM are not included in this table.
 The Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine in Blacksburg, Va, began participating in AACOMAS in 2003 and admitted its first class that year.
 §Underrepresented minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
Table 2
Characteristics of Applicants to Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Participating in the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service by Year of Matriculation, No. (%) *


Year of Matriculation
Characteristic
2000 (n=7708)
2001 (n=7259)
2002 (n=6324)
2003 (n=6813)
2004 (n=7240)
2005 (n=8255)
▪ Race
□ Asian/Pacific Islander 1346 (17.5) 1226 (16.9) 1086 (17.2) 1201 (7.6) 1357 (18.7) 1668 (20.2)
□ Black414 (5.4)335 (4.6)342 (5.4)358 (5.3)404 (5.6)491 (5.9)
□ Hispanic 343 (4.4) 290 (4.0) 287 (4.5) 314 (4.6) 350 (4.8) 419 (5.1)
□ Native American72 (0.9)68 (0.9)55 (0.9)60 (0.9)63 (0.9)59 (0.7)
□ White; non-Hispanic 5099 (66.1) 4731 (65.2) 4285 (67.8) 4567 (67.0) 4725 (65.3) 5229 (63.3)
□ Other or Unknown 434 (5.6)
248 (3.4)
269 (4.2)
314 (4.6)
341 (4.7)
389 (4.7)
Total Underrepresented Minority § 829 (10.8) 693 (10.0) 684 (10.8) 732 (10.7) 817 (11.3) 969 (11.7)
▪ Sex
□ Women 3402 (44.1) 3151 (45.7) 3058 (48.4) 3348 (49.1) 3638 (50.2) 4199 (50.9)
 Source: Data provided by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service, December 22, 2005.
 *This table includes applicants processed by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service (AACOMAS), but does not include those applicants who may have applied directly to the schools. The number of colleges of osteopathic medicine participating in AACOMAS was 18 for 2001, 2002, and 2003, and 19 for 2000, 2004, and 2005.
 Since 2000, applications submitted to the University of North Texas Health Sciences Center at Fort Worth-Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine (TCOM) have been processed through the Texas Statewide Application Service, so data from TCOM are not included in this table.
 The Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine in Blacksburg, Va, began participating in AACOMAS in 2003 and admitted its first class that year.
 §Underrepresented minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
×
Figure 2.
First-year student enrollment at colleges of osteopathic medicine, by academic year.
Figure 2.
First-year student enrollment at colleges of osteopathic medicine, by academic year.
It is clear that the representation of minority and women applicants to COMs is on the rise, proving that such groups are available to meet the challenge of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in medicine. Furthermore, the enrollment data reveals that these minority and women applicants are being selected to attend COMs. 
Enrollment
First-year student enrollment at COMs continues to increase. The first-year student enrollment in the 2004–2005 academic year was 3646, an increase of 338 students over the previous academic year (Figure 2). The growing number of students enrolled during the past decade is consistent with the requests of COMs for class-size increases and the approvals of such requests by COCA. 
Like the number of applications by ethnic minority students to COMs, the percentage of ethnic minority students enrolled in COMs also increased in the 2004–2005 academic year. Asian/Pacific Islander, black, Hispanic, and Native American students represented 23.9% of the total enrollment at COMs during the 2004–2005 academic year (Table 3). This ethnic minority enrollment represents a slight increase from the previous academic year (23.2%).7 
Table 3
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Comparison of Total Enrollment and Ethnic Minority Enrollment *


2003-2004

2004-2005
College
Total Enrollment
Total Ethnic Minority, No. (%)
Total Enrollment
Total Ethnic Minority, No. (%)
DMU/COM79573 (9.2)80880 (9.9)
KCOM/ATSU 626 86 (13.7) 649 96 (14.8)
KCUMB-COM901139 (15.4)926146 (15.8)
LECOM 806 127 (15.8) 863 148 (17.2)
LECOM-Bradenton......16354 (33.1)
MSUCOM 533 91 (17.1) 538 85 (15.8)
MWU/AZCOM54774 (13.5)55773 (13.1)
MWU/CCOM 664 145 (21.8) 676 156 (23.1)
NSU-COM769248 (32.2)802263 (32.8)
NYCOM/NYIT§ 1161 497 (42.8) 1151 487 (42.3)
OSU-COM35070 (20.0)34871 (20.4)
OU-COM 428 93 (21.7) 427 100 (23.4)
PCOM1011196 (19.4)1125210 (20.5)
PCSOM 253 20 (7.9) 265 23 (8.7)
TCOM492169 (34.3)501176 (35.1)
TUCOM-CA 490 119 (24.3) 508 132 (26.0)
TUCOM-NV......7823 (29.5)
UMDNJ-SOM 352 171 (48.6) 365 181 (49.6)
UNECOM48843 (8.8)49151 (10.4)
VCOM 154 33 (21.4) 307 66 (21.5)
WesternU/COMP700327 (46.7)710332 (46.8)
WVSOM 337
27 (8.0)
367
39 (10.6)
All Colleges 11,857 2,748 (23.2) 12,525 2,992 (23.9)
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *Ethnic minority groups include Asian/Pacific Islanders, blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
 The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine—Bradenton (Fla) and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine—Navada are branch campuses that enrolled their first classes in 2004.
 §New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology's data include the Accelerated Program for Émigé Physicians (APEP) students.
Table 3
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Comparison of Total Enrollment and Ethnic Minority Enrollment *


2003-2004

2004-2005
College
Total Enrollment
Total Ethnic Minority, No. (%)
Total Enrollment
Total Ethnic Minority, No. (%)
DMU/COM79573 (9.2)80880 (9.9)
KCOM/ATSU 626 86 (13.7) 649 96 (14.8)
KCUMB-COM901139 (15.4)926146 (15.8)
LECOM 806 127 (15.8) 863 148 (17.2)
LECOM-Bradenton......16354 (33.1)
MSUCOM 533 91 (17.1) 538 85 (15.8)
MWU/AZCOM54774 (13.5)55773 (13.1)
MWU/CCOM 664 145 (21.8) 676 156 (23.1)
NSU-COM769248 (32.2)802263 (32.8)
NYCOM/NYIT§ 1161 497 (42.8) 1151 487 (42.3)
OSU-COM35070 (20.0)34871 (20.4)
OU-COM 428 93 (21.7) 427 100 (23.4)
PCOM1011196 (19.4)1125210 (20.5)
PCSOM 253 20 (7.9) 265 23 (8.7)
TCOM492169 (34.3)501176 (35.1)
TUCOM-CA 490 119 (24.3) 508 132 (26.0)
TUCOM-NV......7823 (29.5)
UMDNJ-SOM 352 171 (48.6) 365 181 (49.6)
UNECOM48843 (8.8)49151 (10.4)
VCOM 154 33 (21.4) 307 66 (21.5)
WesternU/COMP700327 (46.7)710332 (46.8)
WVSOM 337
27 (8.0)
367
39 (10.6)
All Colleges 11,857 2,748 (23.2) 12,525 2,992 (23.9)
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *Ethnic minority groups include Asian/Pacific Islanders, blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
 The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine—Bradenton (Fla) and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine—Navada are branch campuses that enrolled their first classes in 2004.
 §New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology's data include the Accelerated Program for Émigé Physicians (APEP) students.
×
The number and percentage of women enrolled at COMs continues to increase. In the 2004–2005 academic year, 48.8% of all students were women, and the total number of women enrolled was 6115 (Table 4). 
Table 4
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Comparison of Total Student Enrollment and Enrollment by Sex

Year of Matriculation

Total

Women No. (%)
199481462870 (35.2)
1995 8475 3075 (36.3)
1996*89613308 (36.9)
1997 9434 3591 (38.1)
199898823862 (39.1)
1999 10,388 4181 (40.2)
200010,8174443 (41.1)
2001 11,103 4781 (43.1)
200211,1985099 (45.5)
2003§ 11,857 5557 (46.9)
200412,5256115 (48.8)
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *Data include the Accelerated Program for Émigré Physicians (APEP) at New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology, and Midwestern University/Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine's first classes of 103 students, including 33 women.
 Data include Pikeville College School of Osteopathic Medicine and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine's first classes of 60 students (14 women) and 66 students (26 women), respectively.
 This total number is a correction of an inaccurate number, 11,432, that appeared in a previous version of this table published in November 2004.7
 §Data include Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine's first class of 154 students, including 74 women.
Table 4
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Comparison of Total Student Enrollment and Enrollment by Sex

Year of Matriculation

Total

Women No. (%)
199481462870 (35.2)
1995 8475 3075 (36.3)
1996*89613308 (36.9)
1997 9434 3591 (38.1)
199898823862 (39.1)
1999 10,388 4181 (40.2)
200010,8174443 (41.1)
2001 11,103 4781 (43.1)
200211,1985099 (45.5)
2003§ 11,857 5557 (46.9)
200412,5256115 (48.8)
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *Data include the Accelerated Program for Émigré Physicians (APEP) at New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology, and Midwestern University/Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine's first classes of 103 students, including 33 women.
 Data include Pikeville College School of Osteopathic Medicine and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine's first classes of 60 students (14 women) and 66 students (26 women), respectively.
 This total number is a correction of an inaccurate number, 11,432, that appeared in a previous version of this table published in November 2004.7
 §Data include Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine's first class of 154 students, including 74 women.
×
The steady increase of women and members of ethnic minority groups applying to and enrolling in COMs may be attributable to recruitment programs that have placed high value on greater diversity among students. Another possible explanation for this increase is that many women and members of minority groups may be receiving the familial and financial support necessary to pursue an osteopathic medical degree. 
College Records of First-Year Students
First-year osteopathic medical students entering the 2004–2005 academic year had a mean grade point average (GPA) of 3.43. Mean scores of Medical College Admission Tests (MCAT) for these first-year students were as follows: biological sciences, 8.53; physical sciences, 7.89; and verbal reasoning, 8.24 (Figure 3). The mean MCAT scores of osteopathic medical students entering the 2004–2005 academic year were greater than the MCAT means of the previous academic year in the verbal reasoning, physical sciences, and biological sciences sections of the test (Figure 3). The mean GPA for 2004–2005 (3.43) was equivalent to that reported in the 2001–2002 and 2002–2003 academic years.7 
Tuition
For the 2004–2005 academic year, tuition averaged $16,445 for in-state residents in public osteopathic medical schools and $28,078 in private osteopathic medical schools. For out-of-state residents, tuition averaged $32,753 in public schools and $30,606 in private schools (Table 5). 
Table 5
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Tuition for State Residents and Nonresidents *


Tuition
College
State Residents
Nonresidents
Private
DMU/COM$29,050$29,050
KCOM/ATSU $31,700 $31,700
KCUMB-COM$33,247$33,247
LECOM $24,100 $25,100
MWU/AZCOM$34,099$34,099
MWU/CCOM $29,755 $35,391
NSU-COM$22,265$27,995
NYCOM/NYIT $31,749 $31,749
PCOM$32,334$32,334
PCSOM $27,000 $27,000
TUCOM$30,650$30,650
UNECOM $33,000 $33,000
VCOM$29,500$29,500
WesternU/COMP $33,230 $33,230
Mean
$28,078
$30,606
Public
MSUCOM$20,682$46,482
OSU-COM $14,995 $29,220
OU-COM$19,455$28,353
TCOM $6,550 $19,650
UMDNJ-SOM$20,567$32,185
WVSOM $16,418 $40,630
Mean $16,445 $32,753
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, Tuition Survey for 2005-2006.
 *These figures are subject to change.
 The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
Table 5
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Tuition for State Residents and Nonresidents *


Tuition
College
State Residents
Nonresidents
Private
DMU/COM$29,050$29,050
KCOM/ATSU $31,700 $31,700
KCUMB-COM$33,247$33,247
LECOM $24,100 $25,100
MWU/AZCOM$34,099$34,099
MWU/CCOM $29,755 $35,391
NSU-COM$22,265$27,995
NYCOM/NYIT $31,749 $31,749
PCOM$32,334$32,334
PCSOM $27,000 $27,000
TUCOM$30,650$30,650
UNECOM $33,000 $33,000
VCOM$29,500$29,500
WesternU/COMP $33,230 $33,230
Mean
$28,078
$30,606
Public
MSUCOM$20,682$46,482
OSU-COM $14,995 $29,220
OU-COM$19,455$28,353
TCOM $6,550 $19,650
UMDNJ-SOM$20,567$32,185
WVSOM $16,418 $40,630
Mean $16,445 $32,753
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, Tuition Survey for 2005-2006.
 *These figures are subject to change.
 The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
×
Figure 3.
Mean Medical College Admission Test scores of first-year osteopathic medical students.
Figure 3.
Mean Medical College Admission Test scores of first-year osteopathic medical students.
Many students benefit from government funding, which continues to play an important role in the fiscal health of osteopathic medical education. The US Armed Forces, through the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program, also continues to be an important source of funds for osteopathic medical students and schools. Accessibility to such scholarship programs and financial aid allows osteopathic medical education to be within reach for many students who would otherwise not be able to attend school. 
Revenues and Expenditures at COMs
For FY 2004, the 20 COMs reported revenues totaling approximately $852 million, which constitutes a 5.1% increase from 2003 ($810 million).7,8 As in the past, tuition contributes substantially more to total revenues in the private schools than it does in the public schools, which draw more heavily from state subsidies. 
Total expenditures reported by COMs for FY 2004 were approximately $759 million, an increase of 2% from FY 2003 ($744 million).7,8 Instruction continues to account for the largest portion of these expenditures.7,8 
Conclusion
There are likely many reasons for the recent growth in applications to COMs, including the increase in women and minority applicants. Considering the fact that women now represent half of all applicants to osteopathic medical schools, much of the growth may be representative of women viewing an osteopathic medical degree as a viable option. The rise in enrollment, which is also evident among members of ethnic minority groups, may be attributable to the high value that COM recruitment programs have placed on minority recruitment. 
In the future, the continued growth of student applications may have a major influence on the requests of COMs for class size increases and in plans to establish new COMs. All COMs will need to exercise greater diligence in their recruiting efforts if they are to maintain their high admission standards in a more “open” environment. The Commission will need to use extra care in the scrutiny of new COM applications, as well as in COM recruitment plans and clerkship training opportunities, to ensure the success of future COM graduates. Finally, COCA will need to review all substantive changes in class sizes at COMs to make sure that the quality of undergraduate osteopathic medical education is not compromised. 
“The work ahead,” AAMC president's address 2005 [press release]. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; November 6, 2005. Available at: http://www.aamc.org/newsroom/pressrel/2005/051106.htm. Accessed January 10, 2006.
Rosenthal MB, Zaslavsky A, Newhouse JP. The geographic distribution of physicians revisited. Health Serv Res. 2005;40:1931 –1952.
Excess, shortage, or sufficient physician workforce: how could we know? Am Fam Physician. 2005;72:1670 .
Council on Graduate Medical Education. Physician Workforce Policy Guidelines for the United States, 2000–2020. 16th report. January 2005. Rockville, Md: US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.cogme.gov/report16.htm. Accessed January 31, 2006.
Tunanidas AG, Burkhart DN. American Osteopathic Association commitment to quality and lifelong learning. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2005;105:404–407. Available at: http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/content/full/105/9/404. Accessed January 10, 2006.
Ross-Lee B, Kiss LE, Weiser MA. Transforming osteopathic medical education [review]. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1996;96:473 –478.
Sweet S. Undergraduate osteopathic medical education. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2004;104:460 –467.
Singer AM. 2004 annual report on osteopathic medical education. American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Web site. June 2005. Available at: http://www.aacom.org/data/annualreport/index.html. Accessed January 10, 2006.
Figure 1.
Number of osteopathic medical school applicants processed by the American Association of Osteopathic Medicine Applications Service, by ethnic group and academic year. Underrepresented minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
Figure 1.
Number of osteopathic medical school applicants processed by the American Association of Osteopathic Medicine Applications Service, by ethnic group and academic year. Underrepresented minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
Figure 2.
First-year student enrollment at colleges of osteopathic medicine, by academic year.
Figure 2.
First-year student enrollment at colleges of osteopathic medicine, by academic year.
Figure 3.
Mean Medical College Admission Test scores of first-year osteopathic medical students.
Figure 3.
Mean Medical College Admission Test scores of first-year osteopathic medical students.
Table 1
Number of Applications Received, First-Year Enrollment, and Total Enrollment by College


No. of Applications

First-Year Enrollment

Total Enrollment
College*
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-2004
2004-2005
DMU/COM21802279204230795808
KCOM/ATSU 2441 2463 170 178 626 649
KCUMB-COM21032216232239901926
LECOM 2076 2560 227 230 806 863
LECOM-Brandenton.........163...163
MSUCOM 1609 1685 143 148 533 538
MWU/AZCOM20902125147148547557
MWU/CCOM 2747 2943 188 175 664 676
NSU-COM20592202214222769802
NYCOM/NYIT§ 2808 2962 312 315 1161 1151
OSU-COM116211809089350348
OU-COM 2041 2125 114 116 428 427
PCOM3396353926427410111125
PCSOM 1334 1340 75 79 253 265
TCOM13501483129135492501
TUCOM-CA 1942 2157 141 136 490 508
TUCOM-NV.........78...78
UMDNJ-SOM 1737 1984 96 96 352 365
UNECOM18671879124124488491
VCOM 660 1379 154 156 154 307
WesternU/COMP19942033181207700710
WVSOM 1432
1500
103
108
337
367
Total 39,028 46,750 3308 3646 11,857 12,525
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
 Because most applicants apply to several schools, the number of applications shown in this table is significantly higher than the number of individual applicants shown in Table 2.
 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine—Bradenton (Fla) and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine—Nevada are branch campuses that enrolled their first classes in 2004. Each of these branch campuses shares the applicant pool with its parent institution.
 §New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology's data include the Accelerated Program for Émigré Physicians (APEP) students.
Table 1
Number of Applications Received, First-Year Enrollment, and Total Enrollment by College


No. of Applications

First-Year Enrollment

Total Enrollment
College*
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-2004
2004-2005
2003-2004
2004-2005
DMU/COM21802279204230795808
KCOM/ATSU 2441 2463 170 178 626 649
KCUMB-COM21032216232239901926
LECOM 2076 2560 227 230 806 863
LECOM-Brandenton.........163...163
MSUCOM 1609 1685 143 148 533 538
MWU/AZCOM20902125147148547557
MWU/CCOM 2747 2943 188 175 664 676
NSU-COM20592202214222769802
NYCOM/NYIT§ 2808 2962 312 315 1161 1151
OSU-COM116211809089350348
OU-COM 2041 2125 114 116 428 427
PCOM3396353926427410111125
PCSOM 1334 1340 75 79 253 265
TCOM13501483129135492501
TUCOM-CA 1942 2157 141 136 490 508
TUCOM-NV.........78...78
UMDNJ-SOM 1737 1984 96 96 352 365
UNECOM18671879124124488491
VCOM 660 1379 154 156 154 307
WesternU/COMP19942033181207700710
WVSOM 1432
1500
103
108
337
367
Total 39,028 46,750 3308 3646 11,857 12,525
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
 Because most applicants apply to several schools, the number of applications shown in this table is significantly higher than the number of individual applicants shown in Table 2.
 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine—Bradenton (Fla) and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine—Nevada are branch campuses that enrolled their first classes in 2004. Each of these branch campuses shares the applicant pool with its parent institution.
 §New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology's data include the Accelerated Program for Émigré Physicians (APEP) students.
×
Table 2
Characteristics of Applicants to Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Participating in the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service by Year of Matriculation, No. (%) *


Year of Matriculation
Characteristic
2000 (n=7708)
2001 (n=7259)
2002 (n=6324)
2003 (n=6813)
2004 (n=7240)
2005 (n=8255)
▪ Race
□ Asian/Pacific Islander 1346 (17.5) 1226 (16.9) 1086 (17.2) 1201 (7.6) 1357 (18.7) 1668 (20.2)
□ Black414 (5.4)335 (4.6)342 (5.4)358 (5.3)404 (5.6)491 (5.9)
□ Hispanic 343 (4.4) 290 (4.0) 287 (4.5) 314 (4.6) 350 (4.8) 419 (5.1)
□ Native American72 (0.9)68 (0.9)55 (0.9)60 (0.9)63 (0.9)59 (0.7)
□ White; non-Hispanic 5099 (66.1) 4731 (65.2) 4285 (67.8) 4567 (67.0) 4725 (65.3) 5229 (63.3)
□ Other or Unknown 434 (5.6)
248 (3.4)
269 (4.2)
314 (4.6)
341 (4.7)
389 (4.7)
Total Underrepresented Minority § 829 (10.8) 693 (10.0) 684 (10.8) 732 (10.7) 817 (11.3) 969 (11.7)
▪ Sex
□ Women 3402 (44.1) 3151 (45.7) 3058 (48.4) 3348 (49.1) 3638 (50.2) 4199 (50.9)
 Source: Data provided by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service, December 22, 2005.
 *This table includes applicants processed by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service (AACOMAS), but does not include those applicants who may have applied directly to the schools. The number of colleges of osteopathic medicine participating in AACOMAS was 18 for 2001, 2002, and 2003, and 19 for 2000, 2004, and 2005.
 Since 2000, applications submitted to the University of North Texas Health Sciences Center at Fort Worth-Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine (TCOM) have been processed through the Texas Statewide Application Service, so data from TCOM are not included in this table.
 The Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine in Blacksburg, Va, began participating in AACOMAS in 2003 and admitted its first class that year.
 §Underrepresented minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
Table 2
Characteristics of Applicants to Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Participating in the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service by Year of Matriculation, No. (%) *


Year of Matriculation
Characteristic
2000 (n=7708)
2001 (n=7259)
2002 (n=6324)
2003 (n=6813)
2004 (n=7240)
2005 (n=8255)
▪ Race
□ Asian/Pacific Islander 1346 (17.5) 1226 (16.9) 1086 (17.2) 1201 (7.6) 1357 (18.7) 1668 (20.2)
□ Black414 (5.4)335 (4.6)342 (5.4)358 (5.3)404 (5.6)491 (5.9)
□ Hispanic 343 (4.4) 290 (4.0) 287 (4.5) 314 (4.6) 350 (4.8) 419 (5.1)
□ Native American72 (0.9)68 (0.9)55 (0.9)60 (0.9)63 (0.9)59 (0.7)
□ White; non-Hispanic 5099 (66.1) 4731 (65.2) 4285 (67.8) 4567 (67.0) 4725 (65.3) 5229 (63.3)
□ Other or Unknown 434 (5.6)
248 (3.4)
269 (4.2)
314 (4.6)
341 (4.7)
389 (4.7)
Total Underrepresented Minority § 829 (10.8) 693 (10.0) 684 (10.8) 732 (10.7) 817 (11.3) 969 (11.7)
▪ Sex
□ Women 3402 (44.1) 3151 (45.7) 3058 (48.4) 3348 (49.1) 3638 (50.2) 4199 (50.9)
 Source: Data provided by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service, December 22, 2005.
 *This table includes applicants processed by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service (AACOMAS), but does not include those applicants who may have applied directly to the schools. The number of colleges of osteopathic medicine participating in AACOMAS was 18 for 2001, 2002, and 2003, and 19 for 2000, 2004, and 2005.
 Since 2000, applications submitted to the University of North Texas Health Sciences Center at Fort Worth-Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine (TCOM) have been processed through the Texas Statewide Application Service, so data from TCOM are not included in this table.
 The Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine in Blacksburg, Va, began participating in AACOMAS in 2003 and admitted its first class that year.
 §Underrepresented minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
×
Table 3
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Comparison of Total Enrollment and Ethnic Minority Enrollment *


2003-2004

2004-2005
College
Total Enrollment
Total Ethnic Minority, No. (%)
Total Enrollment
Total Ethnic Minority, No. (%)
DMU/COM79573 (9.2)80880 (9.9)
KCOM/ATSU 626 86 (13.7) 649 96 (14.8)
KCUMB-COM901139 (15.4)926146 (15.8)
LECOM 806 127 (15.8) 863 148 (17.2)
LECOM-Bradenton......16354 (33.1)
MSUCOM 533 91 (17.1) 538 85 (15.8)
MWU/AZCOM54774 (13.5)55773 (13.1)
MWU/CCOM 664 145 (21.8) 676 156 (23.1)
NSU-COM769248 (32.2)802263 (32.8)
NYCOM/NYIT§ 1161 497 (42.8) 1151 487 (42.3)
OSU-COM35070 (20.0)34871 (20.4)
OU-COM 428 93 (21.7) 427 100 (23.4)
PCOM1011196 (19.4)1125210 (20.5)
PCSOM 253 20 (7.9) 265 23 (8.7)
TCOM492169 (34.3)501176 (35.1)
TUCOM-CA 490 119 (24.3) 508 132 (26.0)
TUCOM-NV......7823 (29.5)
UMDNJ-SOM 352 171 (48.6) 365 181 (49.6)
UNECOM48843 (8.8)49151 (10.4)
VCOM 154 33 (21.4) 307 66 (21.5)
WesternU/COMP700327 (46.7)710332 (46.8)
WVSOM 337
27 (8.0)
367
39 (10.6)
All Colleges 11,857 2,748 (23.2) 12,525 2,992 (23.9)
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *Ethnic minority groups include Asian/Pacific Islanders, blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
 The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine—Bradenton (Fla) and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine—Navada are branch campuses that enrolled their first classes in 2004.
 §New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology's data include the Accelerated Program for Émigé Physicians (APEP) students.
Table 3
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Comparison of Total Enrollment and Ethnic Minority Enrollment *


2003-2004

2004-2005
College
Total Enrollment
Total Ethnic Minority, No. (%)
Total Enrollment
Total Ethnic Minority, No. (%)
DMU/COM79573 (9.2)80880 (9.9)
KCOM/ATSU 626 86 (13.7) 649 96 (14.8)
KCUMB-COM901139 (15.4)926146 (15.8)
LECOM 806 127 (15.8) 863 148 (17.2)
LECOM-Bradenton......16354 (33.1)
MSUCOM 533 91 (17.1) 538 85 (15.8)
MWU/AZCOM54774 (13.5)55773 (13.1)
MWU/CCOM 664 145 (21.8) 676 156 (23.1)
NSU-COM769248 (32.2)802263 (32.8)
NYCOM/NYIT§ 1161 497 (42.8) 1151 487 (42.3)
OSU-COM35070 (20.0)34871 (20.4)
OU-COM 428 93 (21.7) 427 100 (23.4)
PCOM1011196 (19.4)1125210 (20.5)
PCSOM 253 20 (7.9) 265 23 (8.7)
TCOM492169 (34.3)501176 (35.1)
TUCOM-CA 490 119 (24.3) 508 132 (26.0)
TUCOM-NV......7823 (29.5)
UMDNJ-SOM 352 171 (48.6) 365 181 (49.6)
UNECOM48843 (8.8)49151 (10.4)
VCOM 154 33 (21.4) 307 66 (21.5)
WesternU/COMP700327 (46.7)710332 (46.8)
WVSOM 337
27 (8.0)
367
39 (10.6)
All Colleges 11,857 2,748 (23.2) 12,525 2,992 (23.9)
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *Ethnic minority groups include Asian/Pacific Islanders, blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans.
 The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine—Bradenton (Fla) and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine—Navada are branch campuses that enrolled their first classes in 2004.
 §New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology's data include the Accelerated Program for Émigé Physicians (APEP) students.
×
Table 4
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Comparison of Total Student Enrollment and Enrollment by Sex

Year of Matriculation

Total

Women No. (%)
199481462870 (35.2)
1995 8475 3075 (36.3)
1996*89613308 (36.9)
1997 9434 3591 (38.1)
199898823862 (39.1)
1999 10,388 4181 (40.2)
200010,8174443 (41.1)
2001 11,103 4781 (43.1)
200211,1985099 (45.5)
2003§ 11,857 5557 (46.9)
200412,5256115 (48.8)
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *Data include the Accelerated Program for Émigré Physicians (APEP) at New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology, and Midwestern University/Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine's first classes of 103 students, including 33 women.
 Data include Pikeville College School of Osteopathic Medicine and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine's first classes of 60 students (14 women) and 66 students (26 women), respectively.
 This total number is a correction of an inaccurate number, 11,432, that appeared in a previous version of this table published in November 2004.7
 §Data include Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine's first class of 154 students, including 74 women.
Table 4
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Comparison of Total Student Enrollment and Enrollment by Sex

Year of Matriculation

Total

Women No. (%)
199481462870 (35.2)
1995 8475 3075 (36.3)
1996*89613308 (36.9)
1997 9434 3591 (38.1)
199898823862 (39.1)
1999 10,388 4181 (40.2)
200010,8174443 (41.1)
2001 11,103 4781 (43.1)
200211,1985099 (45.5)
2003§ 11,857 5557 (46.9)
200412,5256115 (48.8)
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine/American Osteopathic Association, Annual Osteopathic Medical School Questionnaire, 2004-2005 academic year.
 *Data include the Accelerated Program for Émigré Physicians (APEP) at New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of New York Institute of Technology, and Midwestern University/Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine's first classes of 103 students, including 33 women.
 Data include Pikeville College School of Osteopathic Medicine and Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine's first classes of 60 students (14 women) and 66 students (26 women), respectively.
 This total number is a correction of an inaccurate number, 11,432, that appeared in a previous version of this table published in November 2004.7
 §Data include Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine's first class of 154 students, including 74 women.
×
Table 5
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Tuition for State Residents and Nonresidents *


Tuition
College
State Residents
Nonresidents
Private
DMU/COM$29,050$29,050
KCOM/ATSU $31,700 $31,700
KCUMB-COM$33,247$33,247
LECOM $24,100 $25,100
MWU/AZCOM$34,099$34,099
MWU/CCOM $29,755 $35,391
NSU-COM$22,265$27,995
NYCOM/NYIT $31,749 $31,749
PCOM$32,334$32,334
PCSOM $27,000 $27,000
TUCOM$30,650$30,650
UNECOM $33,000 $33,000
VCOM$29,500$29,500
WesternU/COMP $33,230 $33,230
Mean
$28,078
$30,606
Public
MSUCOM$20,682$46,482
OSU-COM $14,995 $29,220
OU-COM$19,455$28,353
TCOM $6,550 $19,650
UMDNJ-SOM$20,567$32,185
WVSOM $16,418 $40,630
Mean $16,445 $32,753
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, Tuition Survey for 2005-2006.
 *These figures are subject to change.
 The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
Table 5
Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Tuition for State Residents and Nonresidents *


Tuition
College
State Residents
Nonresidents
Private
DMU/COM$29,050$29,050
KCOM/ATSU $31,700 $31,700
KCUMB-COM$33,247$33,247
LECOM $24,100 $25,100
MWU/AZCOM$34,099$34,099
MWU/CCOM $29,755 $35,391
NSU-COM$22,265$27,995
NYCOM/NYIT $31,749 $31,749
PCOM$32,334$32,334
PCSOM $27,000 $27,000
TUCOM$30,650$30,650
UNECOM $33,000 $33,000
VCOM$29,500$29,500
WesternU/COMP $33,230 $33,230
Mean
$28,078
$30,606
Public
MSUCOM$20,682$46,482
OSU-COM $14,995 $29,220
OU-COM$19,455$28,353
TCOM $6,550 $19,650
UMDNJ-SOM$20,567$32,185
WVSOM $16,418 $40,630
Mean $16,445 $32,753
 Source: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, Tuition Survey for 2005-2006.
 *These figures are subject to change.
 The full names of the colleges of osteopathic medicine appear in the appendix with their abbreviations on pages 97-99 of this issue of JAOA—The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association.
×